Pancreatitis, which is the inflammation of the pancreas, can be acute or chronic in nature. It may be caused by edema, necrosis or hemorrhage. In men, this disease is commonly associated to alcoholism, peptic ulcer or trauma; in women, it’s associated to biliary tract disease. Prognosis is usually good when pancreatitis follows biliary tract disease, but poor when the factor is alcoholism. Mortality rate may go as high as 60% when the disease is associated from necrosis and hemorrhage. (Schilling McCann, 2009)
Nursing Care Plans
The predominant clinical feature in pancreatitis is abdominal pain caused by edematous distention of the pancreatic capsule, local peritonitis resulting from enzyme release into the peritoneum, ductal spasm, or pancreatic autodigestion stimulated by increased enzyme secretion when eating.
Risk for Imbalanced Fluid Volume
Clients with severe pancreatitis may exhibit severe circulatory complications, such as hypotension; pallor; cool, clammy skin; hypovolemia; hypoperfusion; obtundation and shock. Shock is not unusual; it may result from the following: (1) Hypovolemia secondary to loss of blood and plasma proteins into the retroperitoneal space, (2) increased formation and release of kinins, which cause vasodilation and increased vascular permeability.
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
Other clinical findings of pancreatitis include subcutaneous fat necrosis. These are caused by hyperosmolality, hypoperfusion, and hypoxia due to inability to ingest or digest food and absorb nutrients.