This is a preboard examination which can help you sharpen your nursing knowledge for the coming board examinations. This is a 100-item examination about Fundamentals of Nursing. This examination is good for 2 hours, that’s 1 minute and 20 seconds per question. Situational questions are also included.
- Read the situations and each questions and choices carefully!
- Choose the best answer.
- You are given 2 hours for this 100 item test. That’s 1 minute and 20 seconds for each question.
- Answers will be given below. Check your performance.
SITUATION: A Nurse utilizes the nursing process in managing patient care. Knowledge of this process is essential to deliver high quality care and to focus on the client’s response to their illness.
1. During the planning phase of the nursing process, which of the following is the product developed?
A. Nursing care plan
B. Nursing diagnosis
C. Nursing history
D. Nursing notes
2. Objective data are also known as?
A. Covert data
C. Overt data
3. Data or information obtained from the assessment of a patient is primarily used by nurse to:
A. Ascertain the patient’s response to health problems
B. Assist in constructing the taxonomy of nursing intervention
C. Determine the effectiveness of the doctor’s order
D. Identify the patient’s disease process
4. What is an example of a subjective data?
A. Color of wound drainage
B. Odor of breath
C. Respiration of 14 breaths/minute
D. The patient’s statement of “I feel sick to my stomach”
SITUATION : Correct application of the Nursing Process is vital in providing quality care. The nurse must use her skills and knowledge in proper assessment, planning and evaluating to meet the patient’s need and address the priority response of the client to his or her illness.
5. Which statement is a difference between comprehensive and focused assessment?
A. Comprehensive assessments can’t include any focus assessments
B. Focused assessments are more important than comprehensive assessments
C. Focused assessments are usually ongoing and concerning specific problems
D. Objective data are included only in comprehensive assessments
6. Two year old Ben’s mother states “Ben vomited 8 ounces of his formula this morning.” This statement is an example of:
A. Objective data from a primary source
B. Objective data from a secondary source
C. Subjective data from a primary source
D. Subjective data from a secondary source
7. Which expected outcome is correctly written?
A. The patient will be less edematous in 24 hours
B. The patient will drink an adequate amount of fluid daily
C. The patient will identify 5 high-salt foods from prepared list by discharge
D. The patient will soon sleep well through the night
8. An expected outcome on a patient’s care plan reads: “Patient will state seven warning signs of cancer by discharge.” When the nurse evaluates the patient progress, the patient is able to state that a change in wart or mole, a sore that doesn’t heal and a change in bowel or bladder habits are warning signals of cancer. Which of the following would be an appropriate evaluative statement for the nurse to place on the patient’s nursing care plan?
A. Patient understands the warning signals of cancer
B. Goal met; Patient cited a change in wart of mole, sore that doesn’t heal and a change in bowel or bladder habits as warning signals of cancer.
C. Goal not met
D. Goal partially met
9. A quality assurance nurse sends questionnaire to patients after discharge to determine their level of satisfaction with the nurse care they received in the facility. What type of nursing audit is this?
10. The nurse makes the following entry in the patient’s record: “Goal not met; patient refuses to attend smoking cessation classes.” Because this goal hasn’t been met, the nurse should:
A. Develop a completely new nursing care plan
B. Assign the patient to a more experienced nurse
C. Critique the steps involved in the development of the goal
D. Transfer the patient to another facility
SITUATION : Health care delivery system affects the health status of every filipino. As a Nurse, Knowledge of this system is expected to ensure quality of life.
11. When should rehabilitation commence?
A. The day before discharge
B. When the patient desires
C. Upon admission
D. 24 hours after discharge
12. What exemplified the preventive and promotive programs in the hospital?
A. Hospital as a center to prevent and control infection
B. Program for smokers
C. Program for alcoholics and drug addicts
D. Hospital Wellness Center
13. Which makes nursing dynamic?
A. Every patient is a unique physical, emotional, social and spiritual being
B. The patient participate in the over all nursing care plan
C. Nursing practice is expanding in the light of modern developments that takes place
D. The health status of the patient is constantly changing and the nurse must be cognizant and responsive to these changes
14. Prevention is an important responsibility of the nurse in:
D. All of the above
15. This form of Health Insurance provides comprehensive prepaid health services to enrollees for a fixed periodic payment.
A. Health Maintenance Organization
C. Philippine Health Insurance Act
D. Hospital Maintenance Organization
SITUATION : Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is an integral component of prioritization. As a nurse, you must know the client’s needs that request for an immediate action.
16. The client with history of pulmonary emboli is scheduled for insertion of an inferior vena cava filter. The nurse checks on the client 1 hour after the physician has explained the procedure and obtained consent from the client. The client is lying in bed, wringing the hands, and says to the nurse, “I’m not sure about this. What if it doesn’t work, and I’m just as bad off as before?” The nurse addresses which of the following primary concerns of the client?
A. Fear related to the potential risk and outcome of surgery
B. Anxiety related to the fear of death
C. Ineffective individual coping related to the therapeutic regimen
D. Knowledge deficit related to the surgical procedure
17. A nurse is formulating a plan of care for a client receiving enteral feedings. The nurse identifies which nursing diagnosis as the highest priority for this client?
A. Altered nutrition, less than body requirements
B. High risk for aspiration
C. High risk for fluid volume deficit
18. A home care nurse finds a client in the bedroom, unconscious, with pill bottle in hand. The pill bottle contained the SSRI Sertraline (Zoloft). The nurse immediately assesses the client’s:
A. Blood pressure
D. Urine Output
19. A nurse is caring for a client admitted to the hospital for subclavian line placement. Which psychosocial area of assessment should the nurse address with the client?
A. Strict restrictions of neck mobility
B. Loss of ability to ambulate as tolerated
C. Possible body image disturbance
D. Continuous pain related to ongoing placement of the subclavian line
20. A hospitalized client who has a living will is being fed through a nasogastric tube. During a bolus feeding, the client vomits and begins choking. Which of the following actions is most appropriate for the nurse to take?
A. Clear the client’s airway
B. Make the client comfortable
C. Start CPR
D. Stop feeding and remove the NG tube
SITUATION: Health Promotion is the priority nursing reponsibility. The nurse should be able to promote the client’s wellbeing and identify ways on improving the client’s quality of life.
21. The nurse is caring for a 16 year old female client who isn’t sexually active. The client asks if she needs a Papanicolau test. The nurse should reply:
A. Yes, she should have a Pap test after the onset of menstruation
B. No, because she isn’t sexually active
C. Yes, because she’s 16 years old
D. No, because she is not yet 21 years old
22. The nurse is assessing a client who complains of abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. When examining the client’s abdomen, which sequence should the nurse use?
A. Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation
B. Inspection, auscultation, percussion, palpation
C. Auscultation, inspection, percussion, palpation
D. Palpation, auscultation, percussion, inspection
23. The nurse is speaking to a group of women about early detection of breast cancer. The average age of the women in the group is 45. Following the Philippine Cancer Society guidelines, the nurse should recommend that the women:
A. Perform breast self examination annually
B. Have a mammogram annually
C. Have a hormonal receptor assay annually
D. Have a physician conduct a clinical examination every 2 years
24. The school nurse is planning a program for a group of teenagers on skin cancer prevention. Which of the following instruction whould the nurse emphasize in her talk?
A. Stay out of the sun between 1 p.m and 3 p.m
B. Tanning booth are a safe alternative for those who wish to tan
C. Sun exposure is safe, provided the client wears protective clothing
D. Examine skin once per month, looking for suspicious lesions or changes in moles
25. An employer establishes a physical exercise area in the workplace and encourages all employees to use it. This is an example of which level of prevention?
A. Primary prevention
B. Secondary prevention
C. Tertiary prevention
D. Passive prevention
SITUATION : Basic nursing skills are essential for they are vital in many nursing procedures. Such skills are needed in order to promote health, prevent illness, cure a disease and rehabilitate infirmities.
26. A nurse has just been told by the physician that an order has been written to administer an iron injection to a client. The nurse plans to give the medication in the:
A. Gluteal muscle using Z-Track technique
B. Deltoid muscle using an air lock
C. Subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen
D. Anterolateral thigh using 5/8-inch needle
27. A client has just been told by the physician that a cerebral angiogram will be obtained. The nurse then collects data from the client about which of the following pieces of information?
B. Excessive weight
C. Allergy to eggs
D. Allergy to iodine or shellfish
28. A client has an order for a wound culture to be performed with the next wound irrigation and dressing change. The nurse would plan to use which of the following solutions for irrigation before this particular procedure?
A. Providone-iodine (Betadine)
B. One-half-strength hydrogen peroxide
C. Normal saline
D. Acetic acid
29. Which of the following is the best indicator in determining that the client’s airway needs suctioning?
A. Oxygen saturation measurement
B. Respiratory rate
C. Breath sounds
D. Arterial blood gas results
30. A nurse is planning to assist a diabetic client to perform self-monitoring of blood glucos levels. The nurse should incorporate which of the following strategies to best help the client obtain an adequate capillary sample?
A. Cleanse the hands beforehand using cool water
B. Let the arm hang dependently and milk the digit
C. Puncture the center of the finger pad
D. Puncture the finger as deeply as possible
SITUATION : Mastery of Intravenous therapy and all aspects that address the response of the client to complication related to it will help the new nurse in providing quality care.
31. One hour after the IV was inserted, Nurse Net found out that the 1 liter of D5NSS was empty. Patient was in severe respiratory distress with pinkish frothy sputum. The most probable complication is:
A. Speed shock
B. Renal failure
C. Congestive heart failure
D. Pulmonary edema
32. When an IV of D5W is not infusing well on patient, it is best to first:
A. Pinch the rubber part to flush out clogged blood
B. Coil tube and squeeze hard
C. Lower IV to check for return flow
D. Restart the IV
33. The doctor ordered venoclysis of dextrose 5% in water one liter KVO for 24 hours as a vehicle for IV medications. How many drops per minute should the fluid be regulated?
A. 20 drops per minute
B. 5 drops per minute
C. 10 drops per minute
D. 15 drops per minute
34. The nurse is administering I.V fluids to an infant. Infants receiving I.V Therapy are particularly vulnerable to:
B. Fluid overload
C. Cardiac arrythmias
D. Pulmonary emboli
35. A client with severe inflammatory bowel disease is receiving TPN. When administering TPN, the nusre must take care to maintain the prescribed flow rate because giving TPN too rapidly may cause:
B. Air embolism
D. Dumping syndrome
SITUATION : Teaching and learning is a nursing responsibility. The ability of a nurse to educate and change the client’s behavior through health teaching is one important goal of nursing.
36. A client’s hypertension has been recently diagnosed. The nurse would plan to do which of the following as the first step in teaching the client about the disorder?
A. Gather all available resource material
B. Plan for the evaluation of the session
C. Assess the client’s knowledge and needs
D. Decide on the teaching approach
37. A diabetic client who is performing self-monitoring of blood glucose at home asks a clinic nurse why a glycosylated hemoglobin level needs to be measured. The nurse should plan to incorporate which of the following into a response?
A. This laboratory test is done yearly to predict likelihood of long term complication
B. This laboratory test gives an indication of glycemic control over the last 3 months
C. It is done as a method of verifying the accuracy of the meter used at Home
D. It is done to predict risk of hypoglycemia with the current diet and medication regimen
38. In teaching the sister of a diabetic client about the proper use of a glucometer in determining the blood sugar level of the client, The nurse is focusing in which domain of learning according to bloom?
39. Which of the following is the most important condition for diabetic client to learn how to control their diet?
A. Use of pamphlets and effective teaching devices during health instruction
B. Motivation to be symptom free
C. Ability of the client to understand teaching instruction
D. Language and appropriateness of the instruction
40. When you prepare your teaching plan for a group of hypertensive clients, you first formulate your learning objectives. Which of the following steps in the nursing process corresponds to the writing of learning objectives?
SITUATION : Nursing is a science. It involves a wide spectrum of theoretical foundation applied in different health care situation. The nurse must use these theories in order to deliver the most needed quality care.
41. The theorist who believes that adaptation and manipulation of stressors are needed to foster change is:
A. Betty Neuman
B. Dorothea Orem
C. Martha Rogers
D. Sister Callista Roy
42. The theorist whose theory can be defined as the development of a science of humankind, incorporating the concepts of energy fields, openness, pattern and organization is:
A. Dorothy Johnson
B. Hildegard Peplau
C. Martha Rogers
D. Myra Levine
43. A theorist whose major theme is the idea of transcultural nursing and caring nursing is:
A. Dorothea Orem
B. Madeleine Leininger
C. Sister Callista Roy
D. Virginia Henderson
44. Florence Nightingale was born in
A. Italy, May 12, 1840
B. Italy, May 12, 1820
C. England, May 12, 1840
D. England, May 12, 1820
45. Smith conceptualizes this health model as a condition of actualization or realization of person’s potential. Avers that the highest aspiration of people is fulfillment and complete developmental actualization.
A. Clinical Model
B. Role performance Model
C. Adaptive Model
D. Eudaemonistic Model
SITUATION : Oxygen is the most important physiologic requirement of the body. Absence of this vital element for over 6 minutes leads to irreversible brain damage. Measures that promotes oxygenation is integral in successfully managing client’s response to illnesses.
46. The primary effect of oxygen therapy is to:
A. Increase oxygen in the tissues and cells
B. Increase oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
C. Increase respiratory rate
D. Increase oxygen pressure in the alveolar sac
47. A nurse suctions a client who has an endotracheal tube in place. Following the procedure, which of the following would indicate to the nurse that the client is experiencing an adverse effect of this procedure?
B. Cardiac Irregularities
C. A reddish coloration in the client’s face
D. Oxygen saturation level of 95%
48. The GAUGE size in ET tubes determines:
A. The external circumference of the tube
B. The internal diameter of the tube
C. The length of the tube
D. The tube’s volumetric capacity
49. The nurse is correct in performing suctioning when she applies the suction intermittently during:
A. Insertion of the suction catheter
B. Withdrawing of the suction catheter
C. both insertion and withdrawing of the suction catheter
D. When the suction catheter tip reaches the bifurcation of the trachea
50. The purpose of the cuff in Tracheostomy tube is to:
A. Separate the upper and lower airway
B. Separate trachea from the esophagus
C. Separate the larynx from the nasopharynx
D. Secure the placement of the tube
SITUATION : To deliver a safe and quality care, Knowledge about wound care is necessary. The nurse will have to deal with different types of wound during practice. It is of outmost important to apply this knowledge to ensure optimum wound healing.
51. Based on the nurse’s knowledge of surgical wounds, simple surgical incisions heal by:
A. Primary intention
B. Secondary intention
C. Tertiary intention
D. Quarternary intention
52. The nurse documents that the wound edges are approximated. When the edges of an incision are said to be approximated, this means edges are:
A. Brought together by sutures, tapes or staples
B. Eythematous and swollen
C. Gaping and draining
D. Necrotic and draining
53. Which vitamin is most essential for collagen synthesis?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin B
C. Vitamin C
D. Vitamin D
54. When assessing the client’s wound for sign of infection, the nurse should look for the presence of which of the following?
A. Granulation tissue
B. Pink tissue
C. Purulent drainage
D. Well approximated edges
55. The nurse is changing dressing and providing wound care. Which activity should she perform first?
A. Assess the drainage in the dressing
B. Slowly remove the soiled dressing
C. Wash hands thoroughly
D. Put on latex gloves
SITUATION : Physical examination and health assessment are important in rendering care. The nurse must use assessment knowledge in order to determine and prioritize client’s response to his or her illness.
56. The component that should receive the highest priority before physical examination is the:
A. Psychological preparation of the client
B. Physical Preparation of the client
C. Preparation of the Environment
D. Preparation of the Equipments
57. When inspecting a client’s skin, the nurse finds a vesicle on the client’s arm. Which description applies to a vesicle?
A. A flat, nonpalpable, and colored
B. Solid, elevated, and circumscribed
C. Circumscribed, elevated, and filled with serous fluid
D. Elevated, pus-filled, and circumscribed
58. When assessing a client with abdominal pain, the nurse should assess:
A. Any quadrant first
B. The symptomatic quadrant first
C. The symptomatic quadrant last
D. The sympomatic quadrant either second or third
59. To assess the client’s dorsalis pedis pulse, the nurse should palpate the:
A. Medial surface of the ankle
B. Lateral surface of the ankle
C. Ventral aspect of the top of the foot
D. Medial aspect of the dorsum of the foot
60. Which of the following assessment would be a priority for a 2 year old after bronchoscopy?
A. Cardiac rate
B. Respiratory quality
C. Sputum color
D. Pulse pressure changes
61. The nurse checks the client’s gag reflex. The recommended technique for testing the gag reflex is to:
A. touch the back of the client’s throat with a tongue depressor
B. observe the client for evidence of spontaneous swallowing when the neck is stroked
C. place a few milliliters of water on the client’s tongue and note whether or not he swallows
D. observe the client’s response to the introduction of a catheter for endotracheal suctioning
62. The nurse is evaluating a client’s lung sounds. Which of the following breath sounds indicate adequate ventilation when auscultated over the lung fields?
63. The night nurse informs the primary nurse that a client receiving intermittent gavage feedings is not tolerating them. The primary nurse should first:
A. Change the feeding schedule to omit nights
B. Request that the type of solution be changed
C. Observe the night nurse administering a feeding
D. Suggest that the prescribed antiemetic be given first
64. A client has a chest tubes attached to a pleural drainage system. When caring for this client, the nurse should:
A. Palpate the surrounding are for crepitus
B. Clamp the chest tubes when suctioning the client
C. Change the dressing daily using aseptic technique
D. Empty drainage chamber at the end of the shift
65. The nurse, aware of a client’s 25 year history of excessive alcohol use, would expect the physical assessment to reveal a:
A. Liver infection
B. Low blood ammonia
C. Small liver with a rough surface
D. High fever with a generalizedrash
SITUATION : Nursing is a profession. Miss Linda is a newly appointed nurse in a hospital in Manila. Born May 1985, Her knowledge of nursing’s professional development is required in order to project the profession in a way that it lifts the standards of nursing.
66. Mrs. Linda defined nursing as one of the following except:
A. Assisting individual, family and community in attaining health
B. Assisting basic health needs
C. Establishing nursing diagnosis and implementing nursing care
D. Diagnosing, treating, prescribing medication and doing minor surgery
67. PNA was established in:
3. With Mrs. Rosario Delgado as first president
4. With Mrs. Anastacia Tupas as first president
68. As a national nurses association, it is characterized as follows except:
A. Both a professional body and a labor union
B. Affiliated with the International Council Of Nurses
C. Advocating for improved work and life condition of Nurses
D. Accrediting body for continuing education program
69. CPE Units per year is needed for license renewal. The number of CPE units per year should be:
A. 20 units
B. 30 units
C. 60 units
D. 100 units
70. As a nurse, R.A 1080 Exempts her from:
A. Paying her professional tax
B. Examination for civil service eligibility
C. Qualifying for the CGFNS
D. Paying business permit
71. In resigning for her job as a staff nurse, she must give advance notice of:
A. 15 days
B. 30 days
C. 45 days
D. 60 days
72. Why is there an ethical dilemma?
A. Because the law do not clearly state what is right from what is wrong
B. Because morality is subjective and it differs from each individual
C. Because the patient’s right coincide with the nurse’s responsibility
D. Because the nurse lacks ethical knowledge to determine what action is correct and what action is unethical
73. Who among the following can work as a practicing nurse in the Philippines without taking the Licensure examination?
A. Internationally well known experts which services are for a fee
B. Those that are hired by local hospitals in the country
C. Expert nurse clinicians hired by prestigious hospitals
D. Those involved in medical mission who’s services are for free
74. The nurse is correct in determining that a License is:
A. A personal property
B. Can be revoked by the Board of Nursing
C. A Right
D. Can be revoked by the PNA
75. A License is renewed every:
A. 1 year
B. 2 years
C. 3 years
D. 4 years
76. Which of the following persons cannot have free access to a patient’s record?
A. The patient
B. The physical therapist
C. The pharmacist
D. The lawyer
77. Ms. Linda’s license will expire in 2007, She must renew her license when?
A. January 2007
B. December 2007
C. May 2007
D. May 2008
78. The practice of Nursing in the Philippines is regulated by:
A. RA 9163
B. RA 9173
C. RA 7164
D. RA 7146
79. This quality is being demonstrated by a Nurse who raise the side rails of a confuse and disoriented patient?
80. Nurse Joel and Ana is helping a 16 year old Nursing Student in a case filed against the student. The case was frustrated homicide. Nurse Joel and Ana are aware of the different circumstances of crimes. They are correct in identifying which of the following Circumstances that will be best applied in this case?
SITUATION : This is the first day of Mark, R.N. to report as a staff nurse in a tertiary hospital. As a morning duty nurse, she is about to chart her nursing care.
81. Which of the following is not an accepted medical abbreviation?
82. Communication is best undertaken if barriers are first removed. Considering this statement, which of the following is considered as deterrent factor in communication?
A. Not universally accepted abbreviation
B. Wrong Grammar
C. Poor Penmanship
D. Old age of the client
83. Which of the following chart entries are not acceptable?
A. Patient complained of chest pain
B. Patient ambulated to B/R
C. Vital signs 130/70; 84; 20
D. Pain relieved by Nitrogylcerine gr 1/150 sublingually
84. Which of the following indicates narrative charting?
A. Written descriptive nurse’s notes
B. Date recorded on nurse activity sheet
C. Use of checklist
D. Use of flowsheet
85. Being a new staff nurse, Mark remembers that information needed for daily nursing care of clients are readily available in which of the following?
B. Order sheet
C. Admission notes
D. Nurses notes
SITUATION : Mr. Orlando is assigned to Mang Carlos, A 60 years old, newly diagnosed diabetes patient. He is beginning to write objectives for his teaching plan.
86. Which of the following is written in behavioral term?
A. Mang Carlos will know about diabetes related foot care and the techniques and equipment necessary to carry it out
B. Mang Carlos sister will be able to determine his insulin requirement based on blood glucose levels obtained from glucometer in two days
C. Mang Carlos daugter should learn about diabetes milletus within the week
D. Mang Carlos wife needs to understand the side effects of insulin
87. Which of the following is the best rationale for written objectives?
A. Document the quality of care
B. Facilitate evaluation of the performance of the nurse
C. Ensure learning on the part of the nurse
D. Ensure communication among staff members
88. Mang Carlos has been terminally ill for 5 years. He asked his wife to decide for him when he is no longer capable to do so. As a Nurse, You know that this is called:
A. Last will and testament
C. Living will
D. Durable Power of Attorney
89. Which of the following behavior of Mang Carlos least indicates readiness to learn?
A. Talking with the nurse in charge and doctor
B. Reading brochures and pamphlets about diabetes
C. Inquiring about date of discharge
D. Asking question about diabetes milletus
90. Which of the following behaviors best contribute to the learning of Mang Carlos regarding his disease condition?
A. Drawing him into discussion about diabetes
B. Frequent use of technical terms
C. Loosely structured teaching session
D. Detailed lengthy explanation
SITUATION : Mrs. Purificacion is now the Chief nurse of a hospital in Manila. She is carefully reviewing different management styles and theories that will best help her in running the nursing services in the hospital.
91. Which leadership style best empower the staff towards excellence?
D. Laissez Faire
92. As a Nurse Manager, DSJ enjoys his staff of talented and self motivated individuals. He knew that the leadership style to suit the needs of this kind of people is called:
D. Laissez Faire
93. A fire has broken in the unit of DSJ R.N. The best leadership style suited in cases of emergencies like this is:
D. Laissez Faire
94. Mrs. Purificacion is thinking of introducing the Primary Nursing Model Approach. You understand that this nursing model is:
A. The nurse manager assigns tasks to the staff members
B. Critical paths are used in providng nursing care
C. A single registered nurse is responsible for planning and providing individualized nursing care
D. Nursing staff are led by an RN leader in providing care to a group of clients
95. Structure, Process and Outcome are components of which step of the management process?
SITUATION : Nursing research is the term used to describe the evidence used to support nursing practice. Nursing, as an evidence based area of practice, has been developing since the time of Florence Nightingale to the present day, where many nurses now work as researchers based in universities as well as in the health care setting.
96. Mr. DSJ Plans to undertake a research of Community 1 and 2 on how they manage their health using Primary health care after an organization and training seminars. This type of research is:
97. The independent variable is:
A. Primary Health Care
B. Community 1 and 2
C. Organization and training seminars
D. Management of their health
98. In this design, the variable that is being manipulated is
2. Organization and training seminars
4. Management of Primary Health Care
99. In general, the research process follows the ff. ordered sequence:
1. Determination of design
2. Statement of the problem
3. Definition of variables
4. Collection and analysis of data
5. Review of related literature
100. Studies done in natural setting such as this one, posses difficulty of controlling which variable?
science month theme 2012 philippines, science theme 2012 philippines, filipino month theme 2012, nursing diagnosis for breast cancer, discharge plan for hypertension, discharge planning for hypertension, narrative report on nutrition month 2012