Risk factors may include
- Inadequate primary defenses (decreased ciliary action, stasis of secretions)
- Inadequate acquired immunity (tissue destruction, increased environmental exposure)
- Chronic disease process
Knowledge: Infection Control (NOC)
- Verbalize understanding of individual causative/risk factors.
- Identify interventions to prevent/reduce risk of infection.
- Demonstrate techniques, lifestyle changes to promote safe environment.
5 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
Nursing Interventions & Rationale
|Monitor temperature.||Fever may be present because of infection and/or dehydration.|
|Review importance of breathing exercises, effective cough, frequent position changes, and adequate fluid intake.||These activities promote mobilization and expectoration of secretions to reduce risk of developing pulmonary infection.|
|Observe color, character, odor of sputum.||Odorous, yellow, or greenish secretions suggest the presence of pulmonary infection.|
|Demonstrate and assist patient in disposal of tissues and sputum. Stress proper handwashing (nurse and patient), and use gloves when handling/disposing of tissues, sputum containers.||Prevents spread of fluid-borne pathogens.|
|Monitor visitors; provide masks as indicated.||Reduces potential for exposure to infectious illnesses, e.g., upper respiratory infection (URI).|
|Encourage balance between activity and rest.||Reduces oxygen consumption/demand imbalance, and improves patient’s resistance to infection, promoting healing.|
|Discuss need for adequate nutritional intake.||Malnutrition can affect general well-being and lower resistance to infection.|
|Recommend rinsing mouth with water and spitting, not swallowing, or use of spacer on mouthpiece of inhaled corticosteroids.||Reduces localized immunosuppressive effect of drug and risk of oral candidiasis.|
|Obtain sputum specimen by deep coughing or suctioning for Gram’s stain, culture/sensitivity.||Done to identify causative organism and susceptibility to various antimicrobials.|
|Administer antimicrobials as indicated.||May be given for specific organisms identified by culture and sensitivity, or be given prophylactically because of high risk.|
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