Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious secondary immunodeficiency disorder caused by the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both diseases are characterized by the progressive destruction of cell-mediated (T-cell) immunity with subsequent effects on humoral (B-cell) immunity because of the pivotal role of the CD4+helper T cells in immune reactions. Immunodeficiency makes the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections, unusual cancers, and other abnormalities.
AIDS results from the infection of HIV which has two forms: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both forms have the same model of transmission and similar opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, but studies indicate that HIV-2 develops more slowly and presents with milder symptoms than HIV-1. Transmission occurs through contact with infected blood or body fluids and is associated with identifiable high-risk behaviors.
Persons with HIV/AIDS have been found to fall into five general categories: (1) homosexual or bisexual men, (2) injection drug users, (3) recipients of infected blood or blood products, (4) heterosexual partners of a person with HIV infection, and (5) children born to an infected mother. The rate of infection is most rapidly increasing among minority women and is increasingly a disease of persons of color.
Nursing Care Plans
There is no cure yet for either HIV or AIDS. However, significant advances have been made to help patients control signs and symptoms and impair disease progression.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Acute/Chronic Pain
- Impaired Skin Integrity
- Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
- Disturbed Thought Process
- Social Isolation
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Infection
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
May be related to
- Lack of exposure/recall; information misinterpretation
- Cognitive limitation
- Unfamiliarity with information resources
Possibly evidenced by
- Questions/request for information; statement of misconception
- Inaccurate follow-through of instructions, development of preventable complications
- Verbalize understanding of condition/disease process and potential complications.
- Identify relationship of signs/symptoms to the disease process and correlate symptoms with causative factors.
- Verbalize understanding of therapeutic needs.
- Correctly perform necessary procedures and explain reasons for actions.
- Initiate necessary lifestyle changes and participate in treatment regimen.
|Review disease process and future expectations.||Provides knowledge base from which patient can make informed choices.|
|Determine level of independence or dependence and physical condition. Note extent of care and support available from family and SO and need for other caregivers.||Helps plan amount of care and symptom management required and need for additional resources.|
|Review modes of transmission of disease, especially if newly diagnosed.||Corrects myths and misconceptions; promotes safety for patient and others. Accurate epidemiological data are important in targeting prevention interventions.|
|Instruct patient and caregivers concerning infection control, using good handwashing techniques for everyone (patient, family, caregivers); using gloves when handling bedpans, dressings or soiled linens; wearing mask if patient has productive cough; placing soiled or wet linens in plastic bag and separating from family laundry, washing with detergent and hot water; cleaning surfaces with bleach and water solution of 1:10 ratio, disinfecting toilet bowl and bedpan with full-strength bleach; preparing patient’s food in clean area; washing dishes and utensils in hot soapy water (can be washed with the family dishes).||Reduces risk of transmission of diseases; promotes wellness in presence of reduced ability of immune system to control level of flora.|
|Stress necessity of daily skin care, including inspecting skin folds, pressure points, and perineum, and of providing adequate cleansing and protective measures: ointments, padding.||Healthy skin provides barrier to infection. Measures to prevent skin disruption and associated complications are critical.|
|Ascertain that patient or SO can perform necessary oral and dental care. Review procedures as indicated. Encourage regular dental care.||The oral mucosa can quickly exhibit severe, progressive complications. Studies indicate that 65% of AIDS patients have some oral symptoms. Therefore, prevention and early intervention are critical.|
|Review dietary needs (high-protein and high-calorie) and ways to improve intake when anorexia, diarrhea, weakness, depression interfere with intake.||Promotes adequate nutrition necessary for healing and support of immune system; enhances feeling of well-being.|
|Discuss medication regimen, interactions, and side effects||Enhances cooperation with or increases probability of success with therapeutic regimen.|
|Provide information about symptom management that complements medical regimen; with intermittent diarrhea, take diphenoxylate (Lomotil) before going to social event.||Provides patient with increased sense of control, reduces risk of embarrassment, and promotes comfort.|
|Stress importance of adequate rest.||Helps manage fatigue; enhances coping abilities and energy level.|
|Encourage activity and exercise at level that patient can tolerate.||Stimulates release of endorphins in the brain, enhancing sense of well-being.|
|Stress necessity of continued healthcare and follow-up.||Provides opportunity for altering regimen to meet individual and changing needs.|
|Recommend cessation of smoking.||Smoking increases risk of respiratory infections and can further impair immune system.|
|Identify signs and symptoms requiring medical evaluation: persistent fever and night sweats, swollen glands, continued weight loss, diarrhea, skin blotches and lesions, headache, chest pain and dyspnea.||Early recognition of developing complications and timely interventions may prevent progression to life-threatening situation.|
|Identify community resources: hospice and residential care centers, visiting nurse, home care services, Meals on Wheels, peer group support.||Facilitates transfer from acute care setting for recovery/independence or end-of-life care.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans related to communicable and infectious diseases: