Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious secondary immunodeficiency disorder caused by the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both diseases are characterized by the progressive destruction of cell-mediated (T-cell) immunity with subsequent effects on humoral (B-cell) immunity because of the pivotal role of the CD4+helper T cells in immune reactions. Immunodeficiency makes the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections, unusual cancers, and other abnormalities.
AIDS results from the infection of HIV which has two forms: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both forms have the same model of transmission and similar opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, but studies indicate that HIV-2 develops more slowly and presents with milder symptoms than HIV-1. Transmission occurs through contact with infected blood or body fluids and is associated with identifiable high-risk behaviors.
Persons with HIV/AIDS have been found to fall into five general categories: (1) homosexual or bisexual men, (2) injection drug users, (3) recipients of infected blood or blood products, (4) heterosexual partners of a person with HIV infection, and (5) children born to an infected mother. The rate of infection is most rapidly increasing among minority women and is increasingly a disease of persons of color.
Nursing Care Plans
There is no cure yet for either HIV or AIDS. However, significant advances have been made to help patients control signs and symptoms and impair disease progression.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Acute/Chronic Pain
- Impaired Skin Integrity
- Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
- Disturbed Thought Process
- Social Isolation
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Infection
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
- Social Isolation
May be related to
- Altered state of wellness, changes in physical appearance, alterations in mental status
- Perceptions of unacceptable social or sexual behavior/values
- Inadequate personal resources/support systems
- Physical isolation
Possibly evidenced by
- Expressed feeling of aloneness imposed by others, feelings of rejection
- Absence of supportive SO: partners, family, acquaintances/friends
- Identify supportive individual(s).
- Use resources for assistance.
- Participate in activities/programs at level of ability/desire.
|Ascertain patient’s perception of situation.||Isolation may be partly self-imposed because patient fears rejection/reaction of others.|
|Spend time talking with patient during and between care activities. Be supportive, allowing for verbalization. Treat with dignity and regard for patient’s feelings.||Patient may experience physical isolation as a result of current medical status and some degree of social isolation secondary to diagnosis of AIDS.|
|Limit or avoid use of mask, gown, and gloves when possible and when talking to patient.||Reduces patient’s sense of physical isolation and provides positive social contact, which may enhance self-esteem and decrease negative behaviors.|
|Identify support systems available to patient, including presence of and/or relationship with immediate and extended family.||When patient has assistance from SO, feelings of loneliness and rejection are diminished. Patient may not receive usual or needed support for coping with life-threatening illness and associated grief because of fear and lack of understanding (AIDS hysteria).|
|Explain isolation precautions and procedures to patient and SO.||Gloves, gowns, mask are not routinely required with a diagnosis of AIDS except when contact with secretions or excretions is expected. Misuse of these barriers enhances feelings of emotional and physical isolation. When precautions are necessary, explanations help patient understand reasons for procedures and provide feeling of inclusion in what is happening.|
|Encourage open visitation (as able), telephone contacts, and social activities within tolerated level.||Participation with others can foster a feeling of belonging.|
|Encourage active role of contact with SO.||Helps reestablish a feeling of participation in a social relationship. May lessen likelihood of suicide attempts.|
|Develop a plan of action with patient: Look at available resources; support healthy behaviors. Help patient problem-solve solution to short-term or imposed isolation.||Having a plan promotes a sense of control over own life and gives patient something to look forward to and actions to accomplish.|
|Be alert to verbal or nonverbal cues: withdrawal, statements of despair, sense of aloneness. Ask patient if thoughts of suicide are being entertained.||Indicators of despair and suicidal ideation are often present; when these cues are acknowledged by the caregiver, patient is usually willing to talk about thoughts of suicide and sense of isolation and hopelessness.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans related to communicable and infectious diseases: