Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the immune system – specifically, it is a cancer of immune cells called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. It includes distinct entities defined by clinical, histologic, immunologic, molecular, and genetic characteristics. Based on histologic characteristics, lymphomas are divided into two major subgroups: Hodgkin’s disease and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Nursing Care Plans
Risk for Ineffective Breathing Pattern
Risk factors may include
- Tracheobronchial obstruction: enlarged mediastinal nodes and/or airway edema (Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s); superior vena cava syndrome (non-Hodgkin’s)
Possibly evidenced by
- Not applicable. Existence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual nursing diagnosis.
- Maintain a normal/effective respiratory pattern, free of dyspnea, cyanosis, or other signs of respiratory distress.
|Assess and monitor respiratory rate, depth, rhythm. Note reports of dyspnea and use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring, altered chest excursion.||Changes (such as tachypnea, dyspnea, use of accessory muscles) may indicate progression of respiratory involvement and compromise requiring prompt intervention.|
|Place patient in position of comfort, usually with head of bed elevated or sitting upright leaning forward (weight supported on arms), feet dangling.||Maximizes lung expansion, decreases work of breathing, and reduces risk of aspiration.|
|Reposition and assist with turning periodically.||Promotes aeration of all lung segments and mobilizes secretions.|
|Instruct and assist with deep-breathing techniques, pursed-lip or abdominal diaphragmatic breathing if indicated.||Helps promote gas diffusion and expansion of small airways. Provides patient with some control over respiration, helping to reduce anxiety.|
|Monitor and evaluate skin color, noting pallor, development of cyanosis (particularly in nailbeds, ear lobes, and lips).||Proliferation of WBCs can reduce oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, leading to hypoxemia.|
|Assess respiratory response to activity. Note reports of dyspnea or ”air hunger,” increased fatigue. Schedule rest periods between activities.||Decreased cellular oxygenation reduces activity tolerance. Rest reduces oxygen demands and minimizes fatigue and dyspnea.|
|Identify and encourage energy-saving techniques (rest periods before and after meals, use of shower chair, sitting for care).||Aids in reducing fatigue and dyspnea, and conserves energy for cellular regeneration and respiratory function.|
|Promote bedrest and provide care as indicated during acute and prolonged exacerbation.||Worsening respiratory involvement and hypoxia may necessitate cessation of activity to prevent more serious respiratory compromise.|
|Encourage expression of feelings. Acknowledge reality of situation and normality of feelings.||Anxiety increases oxygen demand, and hypoxemia potentiates respiratory distress and cardiac symptoms, which in turn escalates anxiety.|
|Provide calm, quiet environment.||Promotes relaxation, conserving energy and reducing oxygen demand.|
|Observe for neck vein distension, headache, dizziness, periorbital and facial edema, dyspnea, and stridor.||Non-Hodgkin’s patients are at risk for superior vena cava syndrome, which may result in tracheal deviation and airway obstruction, representing an oncologic emergency.|
|Provide support to family and caregivers. Encourage open expression of feelings.||Development of this complication is very frightening for patient and family because it may indicate end-stage of disease process and approaching death, especially in the hospice setting. Keeping family informed may diminish their anxiety and minimize transmission to patient.|
|Provide supplemental oxygen.||Maximizes oxygen available for circulatory uptake; aids in reducing hypoxemia.|
|Monitor laboratory studies (ABGs, oximetry).||Measures adequacy of respiratory function and effectiveness of therapy.|
|Administer analgesics and tranquilizers as indicated.||Reducing physiological responses to pain and anxiety decreases oxygen demands and may limit respiratory compromise.|
|Assist with respiratory treatments or adjuncts, (IPPB, incentive spirometer) if appropriate.||Promotes maximal aeration of all lung segments, preventing atelectasis.|
|Assist with intubation and mechanical ventilation.||May be necessary to support respiratory function until airway edema is resolved in acutely ill hospitalized patient.|
|Prepare for emergency radiation therapy when indicated.||Treatment of choice for superior vena cava syndrome.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans for hematologic and lymphatic system disorders:
- Anaphylactic Shock | 4 Care Plans
- Anemia | 4 Care Plans
- Aortic Aneurysm | 4 Care Plans
- Deep Vein Thrombosis | 5 Care Plans
- Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation | 4 Care Plans
- Hemophilia | 5 Care Plans
- Leukemia | 5 Care Plans
- Lymphoma | 3 Care Plans
- Sepsis and Septicemia | 6 Care Plans
- Sickle Cell Anemia Crisis | 6 Care Plans