Hepatitis is a widespread inflammation of the liver that results in degeneration and necrosis of liver cells. Inflammation of the liver can be due to bacterial invasion, injury by physical or toxic chemical agents (e.g., drugs, alcohol, industrial chemicals), viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G), or autoimmune response. Although most hepatitis is self-limiting, approximately 20% of acute hepatitis B and 50% of hepatitis C cases progress to a chronic state or cirrhosis and can be fatal.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care planning and management for patients with hepatitis includes: reducing the demands of the liver while promoting physical well-being, preventing complications of hepatitis, enhance self-concept, acceptance of situation, and providing information about the disease process, prognosis, and treatment.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
- Deficient Knowledge
- Situational Low Self-Esteem
- Risk for Infection
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Situational Low Self-Esteem
- Situational Low Self-Esteem
May be related to
- Annoying/debilitating symptoms, confinement/isolation, length of illness/recovery period
Possibly evidenced by
- Verbalization of change in lifestyle; fear of rejection/reaction of others, negative feelings about body; feelings of helplessness
- Depression, lack of follow-through, self-destructive behavior
- Verbalize feelings.
- Identify feelings and methods for coping with negative perception of self.
- Verbalize acceptance of self in situation, including length of recovery/need for isolation.
- Acknowledge self as worthwhile; be responsible for self.
|Contract with patient regarding time for listening. Encourage discussion of feelings/concerns.||Establishing time enhances trusting relationship. Providing opportunity to express feelings allows patient to feel more in control of the situation. Verbalization can decrease anxiety and depression and facilitate positive coping behaviors. Patient may need to express feelings about being ill, length and cost of illness, possibility of infecting others, and (in severe illness) fear of death. May have concerns regarding the stigma of the disease.|
|Avoid making moral judgments regarding lifestyle.||Patient may already feel upset and angry and condemn self; judgments from others will further damage self-esteem. Can also start distrust issues with care worker.|
|Discuss recovery expectations.||Recovery period may be prolonged (up to 6 mo), potentiating family and/or situational stress and necessitating need for planning, support, and follow-up.|
|Assess effect of illness on economic factors of patient and SO.||Financial problems may exist because of loss of patient’s role functioning in the family and prolonged recovery.|
|Offer diversional activities based on energy level.||Enables patient to use time and energy in constructive ways that enhance self-esteem and minimize anxiety and depression.|
|Suggest patient wear bright reds or blues and blacks instead of yellows or greens.||Enhances appearance, because yellow skin tones are intensified by yellow/green colors. Jaundice usually peaks within 1–2 wk, then gradually resolves over 2–4 wk.|
|Make appropriate referrals for help as needed: case manager, discharge planner, social services, and/or other community agencies.||Can facilitate problem solving and help involved individuals cope more effectively with situation.|
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Gastrointestinal Care Plans
Care plans covering the disorders of the gastrointestinal and digestive system:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans