Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic pulmonary disease that affects low birth weight and premature infants who received assistive ventilation due to respiratory distress syndrome. This condition occurs from a deficiency in lung surfactant, damage to the lungs caused by ventilator pressure, and exposure to high oxygen concentrations. Infants experiencing BPD may develop labored breathing, tachypnea, wheezes, oxygen dependence, cyanosis, abnormal ABGs and chest findings, poor weight, and repeated lung infections that may require frequent and prolonged hospitalizations. BPD may resolve by the time the child reaches 3 to 4 years of age.
Nursing Care Plans
The nursing care planning goals for a patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) centers on decreasing further lung injury, maintaining adequate ventilation, providing nutritional needs to promote lung maturity and development, preventing infections and enabling the family to cope up with the condition.
Here are five nursing care plans and nursing diagnoses for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD):
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Compromised Family Coping
- Disorganized Infant Behavior
- Risk for Infection
Risk for Infection
Risk for Infection: At increased risk for being invaded by pathogenic organisms.
May be related to
- Chronic respiratory disease
Possibly evidenced by
- [not applicable]
- Infant will not experience a respiratory infection.
|Assess for change in breathing pattern, color of mucus, rise in temperature, diminished breath sounds; presence of respiratory infection of family members.||Reveals presence or potential for infection, which may be life-threatening in infants with this disease.|
|Avoid exposure to persons with existing respiratory infections; isolate from infectious clients.||Infants have a decreased immune system and are vulnerable to acquiring infection from others.|
|Collect sputum sample for culture as needed.||Distinguishes presence of pathogenic organisms.|
|Stress the importance of good handwashing technique prior giving care to the infant.||Avoids transfer of microorganism to the infant.|
|Educate parents about infant’s vulnerability to infection and to avoid contact with people with existing respiratory infection.||Any illness, even a minor one will compromise the infant’s respiratory status.|
|Stress to parents the importance of adequate fluid and nutritional intake.||Maintains fluid and nutritional requirements of the infant to attain good defense against illness.|
|Reinforce to parents to maintain an environment free of smoke, sprays, or other irritating substances.||Prevents airway irritation that might increase the risk of infection.|
|Assist with removal of secretions through chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and suctioning via a sterile technique|
|Stasis of secretions provides a medium for infection.|
|Encourage parents to provide adequate fluid and nutritional intake.||Maintains fluid and nutritional requirements of infant to provide adequate defenses.|
|Encourage parents of the importance to have periodic X-rays and laboratory tests.||Monitors progress of the disease.|
|Refer parents for cardiopulmonary|
resuscitation (CPR) class.
|Provides anticipatory knowledge to perform life-saving measure if needed.|
|Instruct parents to report an increase in mucus production or signs of severe respiratory distress to the physician.||Provides for prompt interventions, if needed, to control infection.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:
- Asthma | 8 Care Plans
- Bronchiolitis | 5 Care Plans
- Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) | 5 Care Plans
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) | 7 Care Plans
- Cystic Fibrosis | 5 Care Plans
- Hemothorax and Pneumothorax | 3 Care Plans
- Influenza (Flu) | 5 Care Plans
- Lung Cancer | 5 Care Plans
- Mechanical Ventilation | 6 Care Plans
- Near-Drowning | 5 Care Plans
- Pleural Effusion | 6 Care Plans
- Pneumonia | 11 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Embolism | 4 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Tuberculosis | 5 Care Plans
- Tracheostomy | 5 Care Plans
References and Sources
- Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
- Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
- Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
- Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
- Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthma. The journal of nursing research: JNR, 13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]