5 Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) Nursing Care Plans


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic pulmonary disease that affects low birth weight and premature infants who received assistive ventilation due to respiratory distress syndrome. This condition occurs from a deficiency in lung surfactant, damage to the lungs caused by ventilator pressure, and exposure to high oxygen concentrations. Infants experiencing BPD may develop labored breathing, tachypnea, wheezes, oxygen dependence, cyanosis, abnormal ABGs and chest findings, poor weight, and repeated lung infections that may require frequent and prolonged hospitalizations. BPD may resolve by the time the child reaches 3 to 4 years of age.

Nursing Care Plans

The nursing care planning goals for a patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) centers on decreasing further lung injury, maintaining adequate ventilation, providing nutritional needs to promote lung maturity and development, preventing infections and enabling the family to cope up with the condition.

Here are five nursing care plans and nursing diagnoses for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD):

  1. Impaired Gas Exchange
  2. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
  3. Compromised Family Coping
  4. Disorganized Infant Behavior
  5. Risk for Infection

Risk for Infection

Risk for Infection: At increased risk for being invaded by pathogenic organisms.


May be related to

  • Chronic respiratory disease

Possibly evidenced by

  • [not applicable]

Desired Outcomes

  • Infant will not experience a respiratory infection.
Nursing InterventionsRationale
Assess for change in breathing pattern, color of mucus, rise in temperature, diminished breath sounds; presence of respiratory infection of family members.Reveals presence or potential for infection, which may be life-threatening in infants with this disease.
Avoid exposure to persons with existing respiratory infections; isolate from infectious clients.Infants have a decreased immune system and are vulnerable to acquiring infection from others.
Collect sputum sample for culture as needed.Distinguishes presence of pathogenic organisms.
Stress the importance of good handwashing technique prior giving care to the infant.Avoids transfer of microorganism to the infant.
Educate parents about infant’s vulnerability to infection and to avoid contact with people with existing respiratory infection.Any illness, even a minor one will compromise the infant’s respiratory status.
Stress to parents the importance of adequate fluid and nutritional intake.Maintains fluid and nutritional requirements of the infant to attain good defense against illness.
Reinforce to parents to maintain an environment free of smoke, sprays, or other irritating substances.Prevents airway irritation that might increase the risk of infection.
Assist with removal of secretions through chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and suctioning via a sterile technique
as needed.
Stasis of secretions provides a medium for infection.
Encourage parents to provide adequate fluid and nutritional intake.Maintains fluid and nutritional  requirements of infant to provide adequate defenses.
Encourage parents of the importance to have periodic X-rays and laboratory tests.Monitors progress of the disease.
Refer parents for cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) class.
Provides anticipatory knowledge to perform life-saving measure if needed.
Instruct parents to report an increase in mucus production or signs of severe respiratory distress to the physician.Provides for prompt interventions, if needed, to control infection.


Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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See Also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:


Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:

References and Sources

The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for asthma:

  • Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
  • Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
  • Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
  • Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthmaThe journal of nursing research: JNR13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]
Paul Martin is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2007. Having worked as a medical-surgical nurse for five years, he handled different kinds of patients and learned how to provide individualized care to them. Now, his experiences working in the hospital is carried over to his writings to help aspiring students achieve their goals. He is currently working as a nursing instructor and have a particular interest in nursing management, emergency care, critical care, infection control, and public health. As a writer at Nurseslabs, his goal is to impart his clinical knowledge and skills to students and nurses helping them become the best version of themselves and ultimately make an impact in uplifting the nursing profession.
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