Gastroenteritis; Food Poisoning; Stomach Flu; Traveler’s Diarrhea is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines. The most common cause of this disease is infection obtained from consuming food or water. A variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites are associated with gastroenteritis. Viral gastroenteritis also called stomach flu is a very contagious form of this disease. Food-borne gastroenteritis or food poisoning is associated with bacteria strains such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Campylobacter, and salmonella. The ingestion of foods contaminated with chemicals (lead, mercury, arsenic) or the ingestion of poisonous species of mushrooms or plants or contaminated fish or shellfish can also result in gastroenteritis. Symptoms of this disease include fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. The treatment is symptomatic, although in cases of bacterial and parasitic infections require antibiotic therapy.
Nursing Care Plans
Hospitalization may be needed for clients who experience severe dehydration as a result of the vomiting and diarrhea. This care plan for Gastroenteritis focuses on the initial management in a non-acute care setting.
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Risk For Fluid Volume Deficit
- Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit
May be related to
- Inadequate fluid intake.
Possibly evidenced by
- [not applicable].
- Client is normovolemic as evidenced by systolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, absence of orthostasis, HR 60 to 100 beats per minute, urine output greater than 30 ml per hour, and normal skin turgor.
|Assess the client’s skin turgor and mucous membranes for signs of dehydration.||A loss of interstitial fluid causes the loss of skin turgor. Assessment of the skin turgor in adults is less accurate since their skin normally loses its elasticity. Therefore the skin turgor assessed over the sternum in the forehead is best. Several longitudinal furrows and coating may be noted along the tongue.|
|Assess the volume and frequency of vomiting.||Vomiting is associated with fluid loss.|
|Assess the consistency and number of bowel movements.||Gastroenteritis is associated with an increased frequency of very loose or watery bowel movements. The inflammation in the large intestine limits the colon’s ability to absorb water, leading to fluid volume deficit.|
|Assess the color and amount of urine.||A decrease in urine volume and concentrated urine, as evidenced by a darker urine color, denotes fluid deficit.|
|Assess the client’s PR and BP.||A reduction in circulating blood volume can cause hypotension and tachycardia. The change in HR is a compensatory mechanism to maintain cardiac output. Usually, the pulse is weak and may be irregular if electrolyte imbalance also occurs. Hypotension is evident in hypovolemia.|
|Assess the client’s temperature.||Fever that occurs with gastroenteritis increases fluid loss through perspiration and increased respiration.|
|Monitor BP for orthostatic changes (changes seen when changing from a supine to a standing position).||Postural hypotension is a common manifestation in fluid loss. The incidence increase with age. Note the following orthostatic hypotension significances:
|Instruct the client to monitor weight daily and consistently with the same scale, preferably at the same time of the day, and wearing the same amount of clothing.||The client with gastroenteritis may experience weight loss from fluid loss with diarrhea and vomiting. Instruction facilitates accurate measurement and assessment provides useful data for comparisons and helps in following trends.|
|Encourage regular oral hygiene.||Fluid deficit can cause a dry, sticky mouth. Attention to mouth care promotes interest in drinking and reduces the discomfort of dry mucous membranes.|
|Encourage increase fluid intake of 1.5 to 2.5 liters/24 hour plus 200 ml for each loose stool in adults unless contraindicated.||Increased fluid intake replaces fluid lost in the liquid stool. Being creative in selecting fluid sources (e.g., flavored gelatin, frozen juice bars, sports drink) can facilitate fluid replacement. Oral hydrating solutions (e.g., Rehydrate) can be considered as needed.|
|For the client who is unable to take sufficient oral fluids, consider the need for hospitalization and the administration fo parental fluids as ordered.||Fluids are needed to maintain hydration status. Determining the type and amount of fluid to be replaced and the infusion rates will vary depending on the client’s clinical status.|
|Administer antiemetic medications as ordered||These drugs will reduce vomiting and the risk for fluid volume deficit.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database MUST READ!
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
More nursing care plans related to gastrointestinal disorders:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans