2 Macular Degeneration Nursing Care Plans

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Macular degeneration is a progressive eye disease wherein the central portion of the retina gradually deteriorates. There are two types of age-related macular degeneration that occur. The dry or atrophic form is characterized by atrophic pigment epithelial changes and is most often associated with slow, progressive, and mild vision loss. The wet type is characterized by subretinal neovascularization that causes leakage, hemorrhage, and fibrovascular scar formation, which produce a significant loss of central vision.

Nursing Care Plans

Nursing management of macular degeneration involves supportive lifestyle changes to adapt to the decrease in vision, unless the degeneration is new and caused by abnormal blood vasculature, then laser surgery can sometimes slow or halt the deterioration by sealing off the leaking vessels. Reversal of damage that has already occurred is not possible.

Here are two nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis for Macular Degeneration: 

  1. Disturbed Sensory Perception: Visual
  2. Risk for Injury
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Risk for Injury

Nursing Diagnosis

May be related to

  • macular degeneration
  • decreased vision
  • aging
  • decreased central vision

Risk factors

  • Retinal hemorrhage
  • Visual distortion
  • Confusions
  • Presence of drusen
  • Decreased visual acuity
  • Decreased visual fields
  • Decreased central vision

Desired Outcomes

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  • Patient will be free of injury and will be able to perform activities within parameters of sensory limitation.
  • Patient will be able to be free of injury.
  • Patient and/or family will be able to modify the environment to ensure patient safety.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess patient for degree of visual impairment. Increases awareness of the problem, and identifies severity to allow for the establishment of a plan of care.
Inform about special devices that can be used. Low-vision optical aids are available to improve the quality of life in the patient with good peripheral vision.
Ensure the room environment is safe with adequate lighting and furniture moved toward the walls. Remove all rugs, and objects that could be potentially hazardous. Provides a safe environment to reduce the potential for injury.
Keep patient’s glasses and call bell within easy reach. Provides for assistance for the patient and for optimal visual acuity.
Instruct patient and/or family regarding the need to maintain a safe environment. Reduced visual acuity puts the patient at risk for injury.
Instruct patient and/or family regarding safe lighting. The patient should wear sunglasses to reduce glare. Advise family to use contrasting bright colors in household furnishings. These techniques help enhance visual discrimination and reduce the potential for injury.
After surgery to extract a cataract
  • Remind patient to attend checkup the following day after surgery.
Because the patient will be discharged after he recovers from anesthesia post-op. Warn him to avoid activities that increase intraocular pressure.
  • Instruct patient to wear a plastic or metal shield over the eye with perforations; a shield or glasses should be worn for protection during the day.
To protect the eye from accidental injury.
Teach the patient how to administer antibiotic ointment or drops; including steroids. To prevent infection and inflammation.
Instruct patient to watch out for development of complications, such as sharp pain in the eye uncontrolled by analgesics, or clouding in the anterior chamber. This may indicate infection and should be reported immediately.

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See Also

You may also like the following posts and care plans:

Ophthalmic Care Plans

Care plans relating to eye disorders:

Matt Vera is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2009 and is currently working as a full-time writer and editor for Nurseslabs. During his time as a student, he knows how frustrating it is to cram on difficult nursing topics. Finding help online is nearly impossible. His situation drove his passion for helping student nurses by creating content and lectures that are easy to digest. Knowing how valuable nurses are in delivering quality healthcare but limited in number, he wants to educate and inspire nursing students. As a nurse educator since 2010, his goal in Nurseslabs is to simplify the learning process, break down complicated topics, help motivate learners, and look for unique ways of assisting students in mastering core nursing concepts effectively.

1 thought on “2 Macular Degeneration Nursing Care Plans”

  1. This is an excellent knowledge base to learn about the nursing diagnosis and care for the Medical Professionals . Myself being an eye specialist could learn alot from this which will help me to provide better care for my patients with eye problems and suggestions for their management. Thank you very much.

    Reply

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