Medical-Surgical Nursing Board Examination Questions for NCLEX and NLE


Take this 100-item examination about Medical-Surgical Nursing that will help you review for your nursing exams. Topics like Emergency Nursing, Stroke, Tracheostomy Care are given focus on this exam.


Topics or concepts included in this exam are:

  • Vehicular Accidents
  • Emergency Nursing
  • Stroke
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tracheostomy Care


  • Read each question carefully and choose the best answer.
  • You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely!
  • Answers and rationales (if any) are given below. Be sure to read them.
  • If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section.


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Medical-Surgical Nursing Exam 23: Comprehensive (100 Items)


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Medical-Surgical Nursing Exam 23: Comprehensive (100 Items)


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SITUATION : Devon, A registered nurse, witnessed an old woman hit by a motorcycle while crossing a train railway. The old woman fell at the railway. Devon rushed at the scene.

1. As a registered nurse, Devon knew that the first thing that he will do at the scene is

A. Stay with the person, Encourage her to remain still and Immobilize the leg while
While waiting for the ambulance.
B. Leave the person for a few moments to call for help.
C. Reduce the fracture manually.
D. Move the person to a safer place.

2. Devon suspects a hip fracture when he noticed that the old woman’s leg is

A. Lengthened, Abducted and Internally Rotated.
B. Shortened, Abducted and Externally Rotated.
C. Shortened, Adducted and Internally Rotated.
D. Shortened, Adducted and Externally Rotated.

3. The old woman complains of pain. Devon noticed that the knee is reddened, warm to touch and swollen. John interprets that this signs and symptoms are likely related to

A. Infection
C. Thrombophlebitis
B. Inflammation
D. Degenerative disease

4. The old woman told Devon that she has osteoporosis; Devon knew that all of the following factors would contribute to osteoporosis except

A. Hypothyroidism
B. End stage renal disease
C. Cushing’s Disease
D. Taking Furosemide and Phenytoin.

5. The old woman was now immobilized and brought to the emergency room. The X-ray shows a fractured femur and pelvis. The ER Nurse would carefully monitor the old woman for which of the following sign and symptoms?

A. Tachycardia and Hypotension
B. Fever and Bradycardia
C. Bradycardia and Hypertension
D. Fever and Hypertension

SITUATION: Mr. Roxas, an obese 35 year old MS Professor is admitted due to pain in his weight bearing joint. The diagnosis was Osteoarthritis.

6. As a nurse, you instructed Mr. Roxas how to use a cane. Mr. Roxas has a weakness on his right leg due to self immobilization and guarding. You plan to teach Mr. Roxas to hold the cane

A. On his left hand, because his right side is weak.
B. On his left hand, because of reciprocal motion.
C. On his right hand, to support the right leg.
D. On his right hand, because only his right leg is weak.

7. You also told Mr. Roxas to hold the cane

A. one (1) inches in front of the foot.
B. three (3) inches at the lateral side of the foot.
c. six (6) inches at the lateral side of the foot.
D. twelve (12) inches at the lateral side of the foot.

8. Mr. Roxas was discharged and 6 months later, he came back to the emergency room of the hospital because he suffered a mild stroke. The right side of the brain was affected. At the rehabilitative phase of your nursing care, you observed that Mr. Roxas uses a cane and you intervene if you see him

A. moves the cane when the right leg is moved.
B. leans on the cane when the right leg swings through.
C. keeps the cane 6 inches out to the side of the right foot.
D. holds the cane on the right side.

SITUATION: Alfred, a 40 year old construction worker developed cough, night sweats and fever. He was brought to the nursing unit for diagnostic studies. He told the nurse he did not receive a BCG vaccine during childhood

9. The nurse performs a Mantoux Test. The nurse knows that Mantoux Test is also known as


10. The nurse would inject the solution in what route?


11. The nurse notes that a positive result for Alfred is

A. 5 mm wheal
B. 5 mm Induration
C. 10 mm Wheal
D. 10 mm Induration

12. The nurse told Alfred to come back after

A. a week
B. 48 hours
C. 1 day
D. 4 days

13. Mang Alfred returns after the Mantoux Test. The test result read POSITIVE. What should be the nurse’s next action?

A. Call the Physician
B. Notify the radiology dept. for CXR evaluation
C. Isolate the patient
D. Order for a sputum exam

14. Why is Mantoux test not routinely done in the Philippines?

A. It requires a highly skilled nurse to perform a Mantoux test
B. The sputum culture is the gold standard of PTB Diagnosis and it will definitively determine the extent of the cavitary lesions
C. Chest X Ray Can diagnose the specific microorganism responsible for the lesions
D. Almost all Filipinos will test positive for Mantoux Test

15. Mang Alfred is now a new TB patient with an active disease. What is his category according to the DOH?

A. I

16. How long is the duration of the maintenance phase of his treatment?

A. 2 months
B. 3 months
C. 4 months
D. 5 months

17. Which of the following drugs is UNLIKELY given to Mang Alfred during the maintenance phase?

A. Rifampicin
B. Isoniazid
C. Ethambutol
D. Pyridoxine

18. According to the DOH, the most hazardous period for development of clinical disease is during the first

A. 6-12 months after
B. 3-6 months after
C. 1-2 months after
D. 2-4 weeks after

19. This is the name of the program of the DOH to control TB in the country

B. National Tuberculosis Control Program
C. Short Coursed Chemotherapy
D. Expanded Program for Immunization

20. Susceptibility for tuberculosis is increased markedly in those with the following condition except

A. 23 Year old athlete with diabetes insipidus
B. 23 Year old athlete taking long term Decadron therapy and anabolic steroids
C. 23 Year old athlete taking illegal drugs and abusing substances
D. Undernourished and Underweight individual who undergone gastrectomy

21. Direct sputum examination and Chest X-ray of TB symptomatic is in what level of prevention?

A. Primary
B. Secondary
C. Tertiary
D. Quarterly

SITUATION: Marvin, A male patient diagnosed with colon cancer was newly put in colostomy.

22. Marvin shows the BEST adaptation with the new colostomy if he shows which of the following?

A. Look at the ostomy site
B. Participate with the nurse in his daily ostomy care
C. Ask for leaflets and contact numbers of ostomy support groups
D. Talk about his ostomy openly to the nurse and friends

23. The nurse plans to teach Marvin about colostomy irrigation. As the nurse prepares the materials needed, which of the following item indicates that the nurse needs further instruction?

A. Plain NSS / Normal Saline
B. K-Y Jelly
C. Tap water
D. Irrigation sleeve

24. The nurse should insert the colostomy tube for irrigation at approximately

A. 1-2 inches
B. 3-4 inches
C. 6-8 inches
D. 12-18 inches

25. The maximum height of irrigation solution for colostomy is

A. 5 inches
B. 12 inches
C. 18 inches
D. 24 inches

26. Which of the following behavior of the client indicates the best initial step in learning to care for his colostomy?

A. Ask to defer colostomy care to another individual
B. Promises he will begin to listen the next day
C. Agrees to look at the colostomy
D. States that colostomy care is the function of the nurse while he is in the hospital

27. While irrigating the client’s colostomy, Marvin suddenly complains of severe cramping. Initially, the nurse would

A. Stop the irrigation by clamping the tube
B. Slow down the irrigation
C. Tell the client that cramping will subside and is normal
D. Notify the physician

28. The next day, the nurse will assess Marvin’s stoma. The nurse noticed that a prolapsed stoma is evident if she sees which of the following?

A. A sunken and hidden stoma
B. A dusky and bluish stoma
C. A narrow and flattened stoma
D. Protruding stoma with swollen appearance

29. Marvin asked the nurse, what foods will help lessen the odor of his colostomy. The nurse best response would be

A. Eat eggs
B. Eat cucumbers
C. Eat beet greens and parsley
D. Eat broccoli and spinach

30. The nurse will start to teach Marvin about the techniques for colostomy irrigation. Which of the following should be included in the nurse’s teaching plan?

A. Use 500 ml to 1,000 ml NSS
B. Suspend the irrigant 45 cm above the stoma
C. Insert the cone 4 cm in the stoma
D. If cramping occurs, slow the irrigation

31. The nurse knew that the normal color of Marvin’s stoma should be

A. Brick Red
B. Gray
C. Blue
D. Pale Pink

SITUATION: John Lloyd, a 27 basketball player sustained inhalation burn that required him to have tracheostomy due to massive upper airway edema.

32. Wilma, His sister and a nurse is suctioning the tracheostomy tube of John Lloyd. Which of the following, if made by Wilma indicates that she is committing an error?

A. Hyperventilating John Lloyd with 100% oxygen before and after suctioning
B. Instilling 3 to 5 ml normal saline to loosen up secretion
C. Applying suction during catheter withdrawal
D. Suction the client every hour

33. What size of suction catheter would Wilma use for John Lloyd, who is 6 feet 5 inches in height and weighing approximately 145 lbs?

A. Fr. 5
B. Fr. 10
C. Fr. 12
D. Fr. 18

34. Wilma is using a portable suction unit at home, What is the amount of suction required by John Lloyd using this unit?

A. 2-5 mmHg
B. 5-10 mmHg
C. 10-15 mmHg
D. 20-25 mmHg

35. If a Wall unit is used, What should be the suctioning pressure required by John Lloyd?

A. 50-95 mmHg
B. 95-110 mmHg
C. 100-120 mmHg
D. 155-175 mmHg

36. Wilma was shocked to see that the Tracheostomy was dislodged. Both the inner and outer cannulas was removed and left hanging on John Lloyd’ neck. What are the two (2) equipments at John Lloyd’s bedside that could help Wilma deal with this situation?

A. New set of tracheostomy tubes and Oxygen tank
B. Theophylline and Epinephrine
C. Obturator and Kelly clamp
D. Sterile saline dressing

37. Which of the following method if used by Wilma will best assure that the tracheostomy ties are not too tightly placed?

A. Wilma places 2 fingers between the tie and neck
B. The tracheotomy can be pulled slightly away from the neck
C. John Lloyd’ neck veins are not engorged
D. Wilma measures the tie from the nose to the tip of the earlobe and to the xiphoid process.

38. Wilma knew that John Lloyd have an adequate respiratory condition if she notices that

A. John Lloyd’ respiratory rate is 18
B. John Lloyd’ Oxygen saturation is 91%
C. There are frank blood suction from the tube
D. There are moderate amount of tracheobronchial secretions

39. Wilma knew that the maximum time when suctioning John Lloyd is

A. 10 seconds
B. 20 seconds
C. 30 seconds
D. 45 seconds

SITUATION : John Smith was diagnosed with Acute Close Angle Glaucoma. He is being seen by Nurse Jet.

40. What specific manifestation would nurse Jet see in Acute close angle glaucoma that she would not see in an open angle glaucoma?

A. Loss of peripheral vision
B. Irreversible vision loss
C. There is an increase in IOP
D. Pain

41. Nurse jet knew that Acute close angle glaucoma is caused by

A. Sudden blockage of the anterior angle by the base of the iris
B. Obstruction in trabecular meshwork
C. Gradual increase of IOP
D. An abrupt rise in IOP from 8 to 15 mmHg

42. Nurse jet performed a TONOMETRY test to Mr. Smith. What does this test measures

A. It measures the peripheral vision remaining on the client
B. Measures the Intra Ocular Pressure
C. Measures the Client’s Visual Acuity
D. Determines the Tone of the eye in response to the sudden increase in IOP.

43. The Nurse notices that Mr. Smith cannot anymore determine RED from BLUE. The nurse knew that which part of the eye is affected by this change?


44. Nurse Jet knows that Aqueous Humor is produce where?

A. In the sub arachnoid space of the meninges
B. In the Lateral ventricles
C. In the Choroids
D. In the Ciliary Body

45. Nurse Jet knows that the normal IOP is

A. 8-21 mmHg
B. 2-7 mmHg
c. 31-35 mmHg
D. 15-30 mmHg

46. Nurse Jet wants to measure Mr. Smith’s CN II Function. What test would Nurse Jet implement to measure CN II’s Acuity?

A. Slit lamp
B. Snellen’s Chart
C. Wood’s light
D. Gonioscopy

47. The Doctor orders pilocarpine. Nurse jet knows that the action of this drug is to

A. Contract the Ciliary muscle
B. Relax the Ciliary muscle
C. Dilate the pupils
D. Decrease production of Aqueous Humor

48. The doctor orders timolol [timoptic]. Nurse jet knows that the action of this drug is

A. Reduce production of CSF
B. Reduce production of Aquesous Humor
C. Constrict the pupil
D. Relaxes the Ciliary muscle

49. When caring for Mr. Smith, Jet teaches the client to avoid

A. Watching large screen TVs
B. Bending at the waist
C. Reading books
D. Going out in the sun

50. Mr. Smith has undergone eye angiography using an Intravenous dye and fluoroscopy. What activity is contraindicated immediately after procedure?

A. Reading newsprint
B. Lying down
C. Watching TV
D. Listening to the music

51. If Mr. Smith is receiving pilocarpine, what drug should always be available in any case systemic toxicity occurs?

A. Atropine Sulfate
B. Pindolol [Visken]
C. Naloxone Hydrochloride [Narcan]
D. Mesoridazine Besylate [Serentil]

SITUATION : Wide knowledge about the human ear, it’s parts and it’s functions will help a nurse assess and analyze changes in the adult client’s health.

52. Nurse Anna is doing a caloric testing to his patient, Aida, a 55 year old university professor who recently went into coma after being mauled by her disgruntled 3rd year nursing students whom she gave a failing mark. After instilling a warm water in the ear, Anna noticed a rotary nystagmus towards the irrigated ear. What does this means?

A. Indicates a CN VIII Dysfunction
B. Abnormal
C. Normal
D. Inconclusive

53. Ear drops are prescribed to an infant, The most appropriate method to administer the ear drops is

A. Pull the pinna up and back and direct the solution towards the eardrum
B. Pull the pinna down and back and direct the solution onto the wall of the canal
C. Pull the pinna down and back and direct the solution towards the eardrum
D. Pull the pinna up and back and direct the solution onto the wall of the canal

54. Nurse Jenny is developing a plan of care for a patient with Menieres disease. What is the priority nursing intervention in the plan of care for this particular patient?

A. Air, Breathing, Circulation
B. Love and Belongingness
C. Food, Diet and Nutrition
D. Safety

55. After mastoidectomy, Nurse John should be aware that the cranial nerve that is usually damage after this procedure is


56. The physician orders the following for the client with Menieres disease. Which of the following should the nurse question?

A. Dipenhydramine [Benadryl]
B. Atropine sulfate
C. Out of bed activities and ambulation
D. Diazepam [Valium]

57. Nurse Anna is giving dietary instruction to a client with Menieres disease. Which statement if made by the client indicates that the teaching has been successful?

A. I will try to eat foods that are low in sodium and limit my fluid intake
B. I must drink atleast 3,000 ml of fluids per day
C. I will try to follow a 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 20% protein diet
D. I will not eat turnips, red meat and raddish

58. Peachy was rushed by his father, Steven into the hospital admission. Peachy is complaining of something buzzing into her ears. Nurse Joemar assessed peachy and found out It was an insect. What should be the first thing that Nurse Joemar should try to remove the insect out from peachy’s ear?

A. Use a flashlight to coax the insect out of peachy’s ear
B. Instill an antibiotic ear drops
C. Irrigate the ear
D. Pick out the insect using a sterile clean forceps

59. Following an ear surgery, which statement if heard by Nurse Oca from the patient indicates a correct understanding of the post operative instructions?

A. Activities are resumed within 5 days
B. I will make sure that I will clean my hair and face to prevent infection
C. I will use straw for drinking
D. I should avoid air travel for a while

60. Nurse Oca will do a caloric testing to a client who sustained a blunt injury in the head. He instilled a cold water in the client’s right ear and he noticed that nystagmus occurred towards the left ear. What does this finding indicates?

A. Indicating a Cranial Nerve VIII Dysfunction
B. The test should be repeated again because the result is vague
C. This is Grossly abnormal and should be reported to the neurosurgeon
D. This indicates an intact and working vestibular branch of CN VIII

61. A client with Cataract is about to undergo surgery. Nurse Oca is preparing plan of care. Which of the following nursing diagnosis is most appropriate to address the long term need of this type of patient?

A. Anxiety R/T to the operation and its outcome
B. Sensory perceptual alteration R/T Lens extraction and replacement
C. Knowledge deficit R/T the pre operative and post operative self care
D. Body Image disturbance R/T the eye packing after surgery

62. Nurse Joseph is performing a WEBERS TEST. He placed the tuning fork in the patients forehead after tapping it onto his knee. The client states that the fork is louder in the LEFT EAR. Which of the following is a correct conclusion for nurse Josph to make?

A. He might have a sensory hearing loss in the left ear
B. Conductive hearing loss is possible in the right ear
C. He might have a sensory hearing loss in the right hear, and/or a conductive hearing loss in the left ear.
D. He might have a conductive hearing loss in the right ear, and/or a sensory hearing loss in the left ear.

63. Aling myrna has Menieres disease. What typical dietary prescription would nurse Oca expect the doctor to prescribe?

A. A low sodium , high fluid intake
B. A high calorie, high protein dietary intake
C. low fat, low sodium and high calorie intake
D. low sodium and restricted fluid intake

SITUATION :  A 45 year old male construction worker was admitted to a tertiary hospital for incessant vomiting. Assessment disclosed: weak rapid pulse, acute weight loss of 0.5kg, furrows in his tongue, slow flattening of the skin was noted when the nurse released her pinch. Temperature: 35.8 C , BUN Creatinine ratio : 10 : 1, He also complains for postural hypotension. There was no infection.

64. Which of the following is the appropriate nursing diagnosis?

A. Fluid volume deficit R/T furrow tongue
B. Fluid volume deficit R/T uncontrolled vomiting
C. Dehydration R/T subnormal body temperature
D. Dehydration R/T incessant vomiting

65. Approximately how much fluid is lost in acute weight loss of 0.5kg?

A. 50 ml
B. 750 ml
C. 500 ml
D. 75 ml

66. Postural Hypotension is

A. A drop in systolic pressure less than 10 mmHg when patient changes position from lying to sitting.
B. A drop in systolic pressure greater than 10 mmHg when patient changes position from lying to sitting
C. A drop in diastolic pressure less than 10 mmHg when patient changes position from lying to sitting
D. A drop in diastolic pressure greater than 10 mmHg when patient changes position from lying to sitting

67. Which of the following measures will not help correct the patient’s condition

A. Offer large amount of oral fluid intake to replace fluid lost
B. Give enteral or parenteral fluid
C. Frequent oral care
D. Give small volumes of fluid at frequent interval

68. After nursing intervention, you will expect the patient to have

1. Maintain body temperature at 36.5 C
2. Exhibit return of BP and Pulse to normal
3. Manifest normal skin turgor of skin and tongue
4. Drinks fluids as prescribed

A. 1,3
B. 2,4
C. 1,3,4
D. 2,3,4

SITUATION: A 65 year old woman was admitted for Parkinson’s Disease. The charge nurse is going to make an initial assessment.

69. Which of the following is a characteristic of a patient with advanced Parkinson’s disease?

A. Disturbed vision
B. Forgetfulness
C. Mask like facial expression
D. Muscle atrophy

70. The onset of Parkinson’s disease is between 50-60 years old. This disorder is caused by

A. Injurious chemical substances
B. Hereditary factors
C. Death of brain cells due to old age
D. Impairment of dopamine producing cells in the brain

71. The patient was prescribed with levodopa. What is the action of this drug?

A. Increase dopamine availability
B. Activates dopaminergic receptors in the basal ganglia
C. Decrease acetylcholine availability
D. Release dopamine and other catecholamine from neurological storage sites

72. You are discussing with the dietician what food to avoid with patients taking levodopa?

A. Vitamin C rich food
B. Vitamin E rich food
C. Thiamine rich food
D. Vitamin B6 rich food

73. One day, the patient complained of difficulty in walking. Your response would be

A. You will need a cane for support
B. Walk erect with eyes on horizon
C. I’ll get you a wheelchair
D. Don’t force yourself to walk

SITUATION: Mr. Dela Isla, a client with early Dementia exhibits thought process disturbances.

74. The nurse will assess a loss of ability in which of the following areas?

A. Balance
B. Judgment
C. Speech
D. Endurance

75. Mr. Dela Isla said he cannot comprehend what the nurse was saying. He suffers from:

A. Insomnia
B. Aphraxia
C. Agnosia
D. Aphasia

76. The nurse is aware that in communicating with an elderly client, the nurse will

A. Lean and shout at the ear of the client
B. Open mouth wide while talking to the client
C. Use a low-pitched voice
D. Use a medium-pitched voice

77. As the nurse talks to the daughter of Mr. Dela Isla, which of the following statement of the daughter will require the nurse to give further teaching?

A. I know the hallucinations are parts of the disease
B. I told her she is wrong and I explained to her what is right
C. I help her do some tasks he cannot do for himself
D. Ill turn off the TV when we go to another room

78. Which of the following is most important discharge teaching for Mr. Dela Isla

A. Emergency Numbers
B. Drug Compliance
C. Relaxation technique
D. Dietary prescription

SITUATION : Knowledge of the drug prophantheline bromide [Probanthine] Is necessary in treatment of various disorders.

79. What is the action of this drug?

A. Increases glandular secretion for clients affected with cystic fibrosis
B. Dissolve blockage of the urinary tract due to obstruction of cystine stones
C. Reduces secretion of the glandular organ of the body
D. Stimulate peristalsis for treatment of constipation and obstruction

80. What should the nurse caution the client when using this medication

A. Avoid hazardous activities like driving, operating machineries etc.
B. Take the drug on empty stomach
C. Take with a full glass of water in treatment of Ulcerative colitis
D. I must take double dose if I missed the previous dose

81. Which of the following drugs are not compatible when taking Probanthine?

A. Caffeine
C. Acetaminophen
D. Alcohol

82. What should the nurse tell clients when taking Probanthine?

A. Avoid hot weathers to prevent heat strokes
B. Never swim on a chlorinated pool
C. Make sure you limit your fluid intake to 1L a day
D. Avoid cold weathers to prevent hypothermia

83. Which of the following disease would Probanthine exert the much needed action for control or treatment of the disorder?

A. Urinary retention
B. Peptic Ulcer Disease
C. Ulcerative Colitis
D. Glaucoma

SITUATION : Mr. Francisco, 70 years old, suddenly could not lift his spoons nor speak at breakfast. He was rushed to the hospital unconscious. His diagnosis was CVA.

84. Which of the following is the most important assessment during the acute stage of an unconscious patient like Mr. Francisco?

A. Level of awareness and response to pain
B. Papillary reflexes and response to sensory stimuli
C. Coherence and sense of hearing
D. Patency of airway and adequacy of respiration

85. Considering Mr. Francisco’s conditions, which of the following is most important to include in preparing Francisco’s bedside equipment?

A. Hand bell and extra bed linen
B. Sandbag and trochanter rolls
C. Footboard and splint
D. Suction machine and gloves

86. What is the rationale for giving Mr. Francisco frequent mouth care?

A. He will be thirsty considering that he is doesn’t drink enough fluids
B. To remove dried blood when tongue is bitten during a seizure
C. The tactile stimulation during mouth care will hasten return to consciousness
D. Mouth breathing is used by comatose patient and it’ll cause oral mucosa dying and cracking.

87. One of the complications of prolonged bed rest is decubitus ulcer. Which of the following can best prevent its occurrence?

A. Massage reddened areas with lotion or oils
B. Turn frequently every 2 hours
C. Use special water mattress
D. Keep skin clean and dry

88. If Mr. Francisco’s Right side is weak, What should be the most accurate analysis by the nurse?

A. Expressive aphasia is prominent on clients with right sided weakness
B. The affected lobe in the patient is the Right lobe
C. The client will have problems in judging distance and proprioception
D. Clients orientation to time and space will be much affected

SITUATION : a 20 year old college student was rushed to the ER of PGH after he fainted during their ROTC drill. Complained of severe right iliac pain. Upon palpation of his abdomen, Ernie jerks even on slight pressure. Blood test was ordered. Diagnosis is acute appendicitis.

89. Which result of the lab test will be significant to the diagnosis?

A. RBC : 4.5 TO 5 Million / cu. mm.
B. Hgb : 13 to 14 gm/dl.
C. Platelets : 250,000 to 500,000
D. WBC : 12,000 to 13,000/

90. Stat appendectomy was indicated. Pre op care would include all of the following except?

A. Consent signed by the father
B. Enema STAT
C. Skin prep of the area including the pubis
D. Remove the jewelries

91. Pre-anesthetic med of Demerol and atrophine sulfate were ordered to :

A. Allay anxiety and apprehension
B. Reduce pain
C. Prevent vomiting
D. Relax abdominal muscle

92. Common anesthesia for appendectomy is

A. Spinal
B. General
C. Caudal
D. Hypnosis

93. Post op care for appendectomy include the following except

A. Early ambulation
B. Diet as tolerated after fully conscious
C. Nasogastric tube connect to suction
D. Deep breathing and leg exercise

94. Peritonitis may occur in ruptured appendix and may cause serious problems which are

1. Hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalance
2. Elevated temperature, weakness and diaphoresis
3. Nausea and vomiting, rigidity of the abdominal wall
4. Pallor and eventually shock

A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 3
C. 1,2,3
D. All of the above

95. If after surgery the patient’s abdomen becomes distended and no bowel sounds appreciated, what would be the most suspected complication?

A. Intussusception
B. Paralytic Ileus
C. Hemorrhage
D. Ruptured colon

96. NGT was connected to suction. In caring for the patient with NGT, the nurse must

A. Irrigate the tube with saline as ordered
B. Use sterile technique in irrigating the tube
C. advance the tube every hour to avoid kinks
D. Offer some ice chips to wet lips

97. When do you think the NGT tube be removed?

A. When patient requests for it
B. Abdomen is soft and patient asks for water
C. Abdomen is soft and flatus has been expelled
D. B and C only

Situation: Amanda is suffering from chronic arteriosclerosis Brain syndrome she fell while getting out of the bed one morning and was brought to the hospital, and she was diagnosed to have cerebrovascular thrombosis thus transferred to a nursing home.

98. What do you call a STROKE that manifests a bizarre behavior?

A. Inorganic Stroke
B. Inorganic Psychoses
C. Organic Stroke
D. Organic Psychoses

99. The main difference between chronic and organic brain syndrome is that, the former

A. Occurs suddenly and reversible
B. Is progressive and reversible
C. tends to be progressive and irreversible
D. Occurs suddenly and irreversible

100. Which behavior results from organic psychoses?

A. Memory deficit
B. Disorientation
C. Impaired Judgement
D. Inappropriate affect

Answers and Rationale

Here are the answers and rationale for this exam. Counter check your answers to those below and tell us your scores. If you have any disputes or need more clarification to a certain question, please direct them to the comments section.

1.  D. Move the person to a safer place
The old woman is in the middle of a train railway. It is very unsafe to immobilize here legs and remain still at the middle of a railway considering that a train might come anytime while waiting for an ambulance. Safety is the utmost importance at this point. If letter D is not among the choices and the situation is a little less dangerous, the answer will be A. Remember that in all cases of emergencies, removing the victim from the scene to a much safer place is a priority.

2. D. Shortened, Adducted and Externally Rotated.
SADDER should be your keyword. A hip fracture will produce a SHORTENED, ADDUCTED AND EXTERNALLY ROTATED extremity. Treatment will evolve in casting the leg and putting it in a EXTENSION, NEUTRALLY POSITIONED and SLIGHT INTERNAL ROTATION. In Hip prosthesis, The nurse should maintain the client’s leg in FLEXION, EXTERNAL ROTATION and ABDUCTION to prevent the dislocation of the prosthesis from the acetabulum. Take note of the difference because I mistakenly answered the LATTER in casting a hip fracture thinking that it is similar to a the leg positioning in hip dislocation. Just imagine a patient with a cast that has his leg in ABDUCTION, EXTERNAL ROTATION AND FLEXION. It will cause flexion contractures.

3. B. Inflammation
After a trauma, Inflammation will start almost instantly. Infection occurs 24-48 hours after bone fracture and not immediately. Thrombophlebitis occurs within 4 to 7 days of hospitalization after prolonged immobilization. There is no evidence that the client has a degenerative disease and degenerative diseases will manifest in variety of ways and not after a trauma.

4. A. Hypothyroidism
B,C,D all contributes to bone demineralization except HYPOTHYROIDISM. Hyperthyroidism will contribute to bone demineralization as well as Hyperparathyroidism due to the increase in PTH, It will cause the movement of calcium from the bone to the blood causing HYPERCALCEMIA. ESRD will cause increase in PHOSPHATE due to its poor excretion. The amount of phosphate is inversely proportional to the amount of calcium. Cushing disease promotes bone demineralization as well as medications like diuretics and anti convulsants.

5. A. Tachycardia and Hypotension
hemorrhage results in severing of the vascular supply of the bone of the femur and the pelvis due to the fracture leading to bleeding causing the s/s of tachycardia and hypotension.

6. B. On his left hand, because of reciprocal motion.
Reciprocal motion is a very important aspect of rehabilitation. Mr. Roxas has a weakness on his right leg. If a human moves his right leg, the left arm will accompany the movement of the right leg. That is what you call RECIPROCAL MOTION which is innate, natural and required to maintain balance. Mr. Roxas has weakness in his RIGHT LEG. If we put the cane on his right arm, The client will then be left UNSUPPORTED when he use his stronger leg [LEFT LEG] and stand with his weaker leg [RIGHT LEG] due to the fact that the opposite arm must accompany the movement of the opposite leg [RIGHT ARM]. In a more easier term, Always put the cane on the opposite of the weaker side. A is not correct because the client is NOT hemiplegic and will never be correct to reason out why the cane must always be at the opposite of the weaker side, it will always be due to reciprocal motion.

7. C. 6 Inches at the lateral side of the foot.
Remove option A, the client will kick off the cane if it was in the front of the foot. Remove option D because that is too far and will cause the cane to poorly support the client because the side, not the tip, is touching the ground. At 3 inches, imagine how short it is and will cause a very poor supporting base. The correct answer is anywhere from 6 to 10 inches for both crutches and cane.

8. A. Moves the cane when the right leg is moved.
If the right side of the brain is affected, weakness will always be CONTRALATERAL and therefore, Mr. Roxas will have weakness on his left side. Earlier I told you that cane is held on the opposite side of the weaker side, which in this situation, will be on the RIGHT. Imagine if the client moves his RIGHT LEG together with the RIGHT CANE, it already violated the LAW OF RECIPROCAL MOTION. Moving the right leg will require Mr. Roxas to move his left arm and not the cane, which is on his right.

9. A. PPD
PPD stands for purified protein derivative. It is used to check for TB exposure. All clients who had BCG need not perform this test because they will always be +.

10. C. ID
A Wheal is created intradermally and then it is marked and timed. reading will be done within 2 to 3 days.

11. D. 10 mm Induration
10 mm Induration [ redness ] is considered positive for individuals with competitive immune response. Wheals are not measured, they will not anymore enlarge. A 5 mm induration is considered positive for patients with AIDS or immunocompromised.

12. B. 48 hours
Clients are asked to comeback within 2 to 3 days for the reading.

13. A. Call the Physician
The nurse has no authority order the radiology department for a chest x ray evaluation nor order for a sputum exam. The client need not be isolated because Mantoux test do not determine the activeness of the disease.

14. D. Almost all Filipinos will test positive for Mantoux Test
almost all filipinos tests positive for mantoux test due to the fact that BCG are required and TB exposure in the country is fulminant. All individuals vaccinated with BCG will test POSITIVE for mantoux test all their lives.

15. A. I
Category I patients are those with a newly diagnosed TB whose sputum culture are positive. II are for those who have relapses while III are those with negative sputum culture but positive chest x ray, or PTB Minimal.

16. C. 4 months
Clients in category I will have 2 months INTENSIVE and 4 months maintenance treatment.

17. C. Ethambutol
Drugs given in the maintenance phase includes Rifampicin and Isoniazid. Ethambutol is given on the intensive phase along with rifampicin and isoniazid. Pyridoxine is given during Isoniazid treatment to prevent peripheral neuritis in contrast in treatment of parkinsonism with levodopa, Pyridoxine or VB6 is restricted.

18. A. 6-12 months after
According to the department of health, the most hazardous period for development of clinical disease is during the first 6 to 12 months.

19. B. National Tuberculosis Control Program
National Tuberculosis Control Program is the name of the program of the DOH to control and eradicate TB in the country. DOTS refers to the STRATEGY used by the department in treating TB patients. EPI is not a program for TB control although BCG is one of the vaccine given in this program.

20. A. 23 Year old athlete with diabetes insipidus 
Nutrition, Long term immunosuppression and drug abuse are all factors that affects the resistance of an individual in acquiring communicable diseases. Other factors includes extremes of ages, poor environmental sanitation, poverty and poor living conditions. Diabetes insipidus does not, in anyway alter a persons immune response.

21. B. Secondary
National board exam loves asking about level of prevention. Mastery with the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention is a must. All diagnostic, case finding and treatment belongs to the secondary level of prevention.

22. B. Participate with the nurse in his daily ostomy care
Actual participation conveys positive acceptance and adjustment to the altered body image. Although looking at the ostomy site also conveys acceptance and adjustment, Participating with the nurse to his daily ostomy care is the BEST adaptation a client can make during the first few days after colostomy creation.

23. A. Plain NSS / Normal Saline
The colon is not sterile, nor the stomach. Tap water is used in enema irrigation and not NSS. Although some clients would prefer a distilled, mineral or filtered water, NSS is not always necessary. KY Jelly is used as the lubricant for the irrigation tube and is inserted 3-4 inches into the colostomy pointing towards the RIGHT. Irrigation sleeve is use to direct the flow of the irrigated solution out of the stomach and into the bedpan or toilet.

24. B. 3-4 inches
Remember 3-4 inches. They are both used in the rectal tube and colostomy irrigation tube insertion. 1 to 2 inches is too short and may spill out the irrigant out of the stoma. Starting from 6 inches, it would be too long already and may perforate the bowel.

25. B. 12 inches or C. 18 inches
If you will answer in the CGFNS and NCLEX, C will be the correct answer. According to BRUNNER AND SUDDARTHS and Saunders, The height of the colostomy irrigation bag should be hanging above the clients shoulder at around 18 inches. According to MOSBY, 12 inches should be the maximum height. According to Lippinncots, 18 inches is the maximum height. According the the board of examiners, 12 inches should be the maximum height and an 18 inches irrigant height would cause rapid flow of the irrigant towards the colostomy. Therefore, answer in the local board should only be at 12 inches.

26. C. Agrees to look at the colostomy
The client made the best initial step in learning to care for his colostomy once he looks at the site. This is the start of the client’s acceptance on his altered body image. A,B and D delays learning and shows the client’s disinterest regarding colostomy care.

27. A. Stop the irrigation by clamping the tube
Stopping the irrigation will also stop the cramping and pain. During the first few days of irrigation, The client will feel pain and cramping as soon as the irrigant touches the bowel. This will start to lessen once the client got accustomed to colostomy irrigation. Slowing down the irrigation will not stop the pain. Telling the client that it is normal and will subside eventually is not acceptable when a client experiences pain. Pain is all encompassing and always a priority over anything else in most situations. Notifying the physician will not be helpful and not necessary.

28. D. Protruding stoma with swollen appearance
A refers to a retracted stoma, B refers to a stoma that is getting a very poor blood supply. C is a description of stenosis of the stoma.

29. C. Eat beet greens and parsley

Kinchay and Pechay helps lessen the odor of the colostomy. Spinach, broccoli, Cabbage, Cucumbers, Patola or bottle gourd also help lessen the odor BUT are gas formers. Eggs are not recommended because they are known to cause unpleasant odors in patients with colostomy.

30. B. Suspend the irrigant 45 cm above the stoma
1 inches is equal to 2.54 cm. Convert the cm if you are not familiar. 45 cm is around 17 inches which is ideal for colostomy irrigation. Any value from 12 to 18 is accepted as the colostomy irrigant height. Tap water is used as an irrigant and is infused at room temperature. 4 cm is a little bit short for the ideal 3-4 inches. If cramping occurs STOP the irrigation and continue when is subsides.

31. A. Brick Red
The stoma should be RED in color. Pale pink are common with anemic or dehydrated patients who lost a lot of blood after an operation. Blue stoma indicated cyanosis or alteration in perfusion. Stomas are not expected to be Gray.

32. D. Suction the client every hour
This is unnecessary. Suctioning is done on PRN basis and not every hour. A,B and C are all correct processes of suctioning a tracheostomy.

33. D. Fr. 18
The height is given and it looks like james is a very tall individual. The maximum height of suction tube is used. fr 12-18 are used for adults while 6-8 are used in children.

34. C. 10-15 mmHg
A is used in pediatric clients. B is for children and C is for adults. 20- 25 mmHg is too much for a portable suction unit and is not recommended.

35. C. 100-120 mmHg
A is used in pediatric clients. B is for children and C is for adults. 155-175 mmHg is too much for a wall suction unit and is not recommended.

36. C. Obturator and Kelly clamp
In an emergency like this, The first thing the nurse should do is maintaining the airway patency. With the cannunlas dislodged, The stoma will stenosed and narrows giving james an obstructed airway. The nurse would insert the kelly clamp to open the stoma and lock the clamp in place to maintain it open while she uses an obturator as to prevent further stenosis of the stoma. An obturator is a part of the NGT package included by most manufacturers to guide the physician or nurses in inserting the outer cannula.

37. A. Wilma places 2 fingers between the tie and neck
Wilma should place 2 fingers underneath the tie to ensure that it is not too tight nor too loose. Letter D is the measurement for NGT insertion and is unrelated to tracheostomy.

38. A. James’ respiratory rate is 18
an RR of 18 means that James is not tachypneic and has an adequate air exchange. Oxygen saturation should be more than 95%. Frank blood is not expected in the suction tube. A slight tinged of blood in the tube is acceptable and expected. Amount of secretion are not in anyway related in assessing the respiratory condition of a person and so is the amount of blood in the tube.

39. A. 10 seconds
According to our reviewers and lecturers, 10 to 15 seconds is the maximum suction time. But according to almost all foreign books I read, it should only be 10 seconds at max. I prefer following Saunders,Mosby and Lippinncots when they are all united.
40. D. Pain
There is NO PAIN in open angle glaucoma. A,B,C are all present in both glaucomas including the low pressure glaucoma. Pain is absent because the increase in intra ocular pressure is not initiated abruptly. It is gradual and progressive and will lead to unnoticed loss of peripheral vision. Pain is present in acute close angle glaucoma because there is a sudden closure or narrowing of the canal of schlemm. Therefore if you will be ask what s/s is common in both, answer IRREVERSIBLE LOSS OF PERIPHERAL VISION.

41. A. Sudden blockage of the anterior angle by the base of the iris
Sudden blockage of the angle will cause s/s of acute angle closure glaucoma. B and C are all related to open angle glaucoma. D is insignificant, If the client bends or cough, IOP can increase from 8 to as much as 30 mmHg but then return again to normal.

42. B. Measures the Intraocular Pressure
Tonometry measures the IOP. Normal range is 8 to 21 mmHg.

CONES Are responsible for COLOR VISION and DAY VISION, they are very sensitive to RED LIGHT that is why red lights are use to guide the elderly towards the bathroom when they wake up to urinate. Rods are responsible for night vision. They are sensitive to blue and green lights.

44. D. In the Ciliary Body
AH is produced in the CILIARY BODY. It is filtered by the trabecular meshwork into the canal of schlemm.

45. A. 8-21 mmHg

46. B. Snellen’s Chart
CN II is the optic nerve. To assess its acuity, Snellen chart is used. Slit lamp is the one you see in the usual Eye glasses shop where in, you need to look into its binocular-like holes and the optometrist is on the other side to magnify the structures of the eye to assess gross damage and structure. Woods light is a BLUE LIGHT used in dermatology. It is use to mark lesions usually caused skin infection. Gonioscopy is the angle measurement of the eye.

47. A. Contract the Ciliary muscle
When the ciliary muscles contract, pupils constrict and the angle widens causing an increase AH outflow and decrease IOP. Relaxing the ciliary muscle will cause mydriasis or dilation, it is used as a pre op meds for cataract surgery and eye examination to better visualize the structures behind the iris. A and C are the same. Other drugs like betaxolol, Acetazolamide and epinephrine are the drugs used to decrease AH production.

48. B. Reduce production of Aqueous Humor
All the eye drops the ends in OLOL decreases AH production. They are BETA BLOCKERS. Watch out for the S/S of congestive heart failure, bradycardia, hypotension and arrhythmias.

49. B. Bending at the waist
Bending at the waist increase IOP and should be avoided by patients with glaucoma. Treatment for glaucoma is usually for life. Patients are given laxatives to avoid stratining at the stool. They should avoid all activities that will lead to sudden IOP increase like bending at the waist. Clients should bend at the knees.

50. A. Reading newsprint
The client had an eye angiography. Eye angiography requires the use MYDRIATICS pre-procedure. It is done by injecting an Intravenous dye and visualizes the flow of the dye through the fluoroscopy along the vessels of the eye. This is to assess macular degeneration or neovascularizations [ proliferation of new vessels to compensate for continuous rupture and aneurysms of the existing vessels ] Mydriatics usually takes 6 hours to a day to wear off. If client uses a mydriatic, his pupil will dilate making it UNABLE to focus on closer objects. Only A necessitates the constriction of the pupil to focus on a near object, which Mr.Batumbakals eye cannot perform at this time.

51. A. Atropine Sulfate
Atropine sulfate is use to reverse the effects of systemic toxicity of pilocarpine. Narcan is the antidote for respiratory depression caused by narcotics like morphine and demerol. Serentil is an antipsychotic.

52. C. Normal
Rotary nystagmus towards the ear [ if warm ] or away from it [ if cool ] is a normal response. It indicates that the CN VIII Vestibular branch is still intact.

53. B. Pull the pinna down and back and direct the solution onto the wall of the canal 
Instillation for children under age 3 is CHILD : DOWN AND BACK. Directing the solution towards the eardrum might perforate or damage the infants fragile tympanic membrane.

54. D. Safety
Although A is priority according to maslow, it is not specific in clients with menieres disease. The client has an attack of incapacitating vertigo and client is high risk for injury due to falls. The client will perceive the environment moving due to disruption of the vestibular sy