Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord as a result of either bacteria, viral or fungal infection. Bacterial infections may be caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis). Those at greatest risk for this disease are infants between 6 and 12 months of age with most cases occurring between 1 month and 5 years of age. The most common route of infection is vascular dissemination from an infection in the nasopharynx or sinuses, or one implanted as a result of wounds, skull fracture, lumbar puncture, or surgical procedure. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is caused by a variety of viral agents and usually associated with measles, mumps, herpes, or enteritis. This form of meningitis is self-limiting and treated symptomatically for 3 to 10 days.
Treatment includes hospitalization to differentiate between the two types of meningitis, isolation and management of symptoms, and prevention of complications.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care plan goals for a child with meningitis include attain adequate cerebral tissue perfusion through reduction in ICP, maintain normal body temperature, protection against injury, enhance coping measures, accurate perception of environmental stimuli, restoring normal cognitive functions and prevention of complications.
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cerebral)
- Acute Pain
- Disturbed Sensory Perception
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
May be related to
- Lack of exposure to information.
Possibly evidenced by
- Request for information about medications, signs and symptoms and behaviors to report
- General care during convalescence of infant/child
- Parents verbalize understanding of cause and treatment plan.
|Assess knowledge of disease and method|
to control and resolve disease; willingness and interest of parents to implement care.
|Promotes plan of instruction that is realistic to ensure compliance with medical regimen; prevents a repetition of information.|
|Provide information and explanations in clear language that is understandable; use pictures, pamphlets, video tapes, model in|
teaching about disease.
|Ensures understanding based on readiness and ability to learn; visual aids reinforce learning.|
|Teach about administration of medications including (specify: action of drugs, dosages times frequency, side effects, expected results, methods to give|
medications); provide written instructions and schedule to follow and inform to administer full course of antibiotic to child.
|Provides information for compliance in medication therapy to prevent or treat infection and seizure activity resulting from the disease; bacterial meningitis is treated with antibiotics, and viral meningitis may be treated with antibiotics until diagnosis is established.|
|Assist to plan feedings and/or develop menus to include nourishing fluids,|
caloric and basic four groups for age group.
|Promotes optimal nutrition in a progressive manner as tolerable.|
|Reinforce to parents follow up to assess for potential hearing impairment.||Promotes identification of hearing loss (injury to 8th cranial nerve caused by meningitis).|
|Inform parents as to the benefits of routine immunizations with H. influenzae (type B) vaccine, beginning at 2 months of age for a total of 3 doses.||May prevent the disease; data suggests the incidence of this form of meningitis has decreased since the vaccine was introduced; may decrease the spread of infection to unvaccinated infants.|
|Teach to promote adequate rest and|
activities that provide age-appropriate play and stimulation (specify).
|Rest important for convalescence and stimulating activities needed for continued development or to promote stimulation if developmental lag is present.|
|Teach to isolate other children in the family for 24 hours if respiratory infection present or until the culture is negative.||Prevents transmission of bacteria to others in the family.|
|Teach to report elevated temperature, poor feeding or anorexia, irritability or other changes in behavior or level of consciousness, decrease in hearing acuity.||Reveals signs and symptoms of presence of or spread of infection.|
|Administer antibiotics as prescribed|
(specify) as soon as ordered based
on analysis of CSF, throat cultures.
|Manages existing infection and prevents further spread of infection (action of drug).|
|Provide stool softeners or mild laxative, avoid use of restraints and prevent or reduce crying episodes.||Prevents constipation and lessen the risk of increased ICP due to straining from defecation.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to neurological disorders:
- Alzheimer’s Disease | 15 Care Plans
- Brain Tumor | 3 Care Plans
- Cerebral Palsy | 7 Care Plans
- Cerebrovascular Accident | 12 Care Plans
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome | 6 Care Plans
- Meningitis | 7 Care Plans
- Multiple Sclerosis | 9 Care Plans
- Parkinson’s Disease | 9 Care Plans
- Seizure Disorder | 4 Care Plans
- Spinal Cord Injury | 12 Care Plans