Another set of the ultimate reviewer for Fundamentals of Nursing. The Nursing Bullets are compilation of bite-sized information that are extremely useful during your review for the NCLEX or the board exams.

Topics

Topics included are:

  • Nursing Assessment
  • Diets
  • Various topics about Fundamentals of Nursing

Bullets

1. After turning a patient, the nurse should document the position used, the time that the patient was turned, and the findings of skin assessment.

2. PERRLA is an abbreviation for normal pupil assessment findings: pupils equal, round, and reactive to light with accommodation.

3. When percussing a patient’s chest for postural drainage, the nurse’s hands should be cupped.

4. When measuring a patient’s pulse, the nurse should assess its rate, rhythm, quality, and strength.

5. Before transferring a patient from a bed to a wheelchair, the nurse should push the wheelchair footrests to the sides and lock its wheels.

6. When assessing respirations, the nurse should document their rate, rhythm, depth, and quality.

7. For a subcutaneous injection, the nurse should use a 5/8″ to 1″ 25G needle.

8. The notation “AA & O × 3” indicates that the patient is awake, alert, and oriented to person (knows who he is), place (knows where he is), and time (knows the date and time).

9. Fluid intake includes all fluids taken by mouth, including foods that are liquid at room temperature, such as gelatin, custard, and ice cream; I.V. fluids; and fluids administered in feeding tubes. Fluid output includes urine, vomitus, and drainage (such as from a nasogastric tube or from a wound) as well as blood loss, diarrhea or feces, and perspiration.

10. After administering an intradermal injection, the nurse shouldn’t massage the area because massage can irritate the site and interfere with results.

11. When administering an intradermal injection, the nurse should hold the syringe almost flat against the patient’s skin (at about a 15-degree angle), with the bevel up.

12. To obtain an accurate blood pressure, the nurse should inflate the manometer to 20 to 30 mm Hg above the disappearance of the radial pulse before releasing the cuff pressure.

13. The nurse should count an irregular pulse for 1 full minute.

14. A patient who is vomiting while lying down should be placed in a lateral position to prevent aspiration of vomitus.

15. Prophylaxis is disease prevention.

16. Body alignment is achieved when body parts are in proper relation to their natural position.

17. Trust is the foundation of a nurse-patient relationship.

18. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the arterial walls.

19. Malpractice is a professional’s wrongful conduct, improper discharge of duties, or failure to meet standards of care that causes harm to another.

20. As a general rule, nurses can’t refuse a patient care assignment; however, in most states, they may refuse to participate in abortions.

21. A nurse can be found negligent if a patient is injured because the nurse failed to perform a duty that a reasonable and prudent person would perform or because the nurse performed an act that a reasonable and prudent person wouldn’t perform.

22. States have enacted Good Samaritan laws to encourage professionals to provide medical assistance at the scene of an accident without fear of a lawsuit arising from the assistance. These laws don’t apply to care provided in a health care facility.

23. A physician should sign verbal and telephone orders within the time established by facility policy, usually 24 hours.

24. A competent adult has the right to refuse lifesaving medical treatment; however, the individual should be fully informed of the consequences of his refusal.

25. Although a patient’s health record, or chart, is the health care facility’s physical property, its contents belong to the patient.

26. Before a patient’s health record can be released to a third party, the patient or the patient’s legal guardian must give written consent.

27. Under the Controlled Substances Act, every dose of a controlled drug that’s dispensed by the pharmacy must be accounted for, whether the dose was administered to a patient or discarded accidentally.

28. A nurse can’t perform duties that violate a rule or regulation established by a state licensing board, even if they are authorized by a health care facility or physician.

29. To minimize interruptions during a patient interview, the nurse should select a private room, preferably one with a door that can be closed.

30. In categorizing nursing diagnoses, the nurse addresses life-threatening problems first, followed by potentially life-threatening concerns.

31. The major components of a nursing care plan are outcome criteria (patient goals) and nursing interventions.

32. Standing orders, or protocols, establish guidelines for treating a specific disease or set of symptoms.

33. In assessing a patient’s heart, the nurse normally finds the point of maximal impulse at the fifth intercostal space, near the apex.

34. The S1 heard on auscultation is caused by closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves.

35. To maintain package sterility, the nurse should open a wrapper’s top flap away from the body, open each side flap by touching only the outer part of the wrapper, and open the final flap by grasping the turned-down corner and pulling it toward the body.

36. The nurse shouldn’t dry a patient’s ear canal or remove wax with a cotton-tipped applicator because it may force cerumen against the tympanic membrane.

37. A patient’s identification bracelet should remain in place until the patient has been discharged from the health care facility and has left the premises.

38. The Controlled Substances Act designated five categories, or schedules, that classify controlled drugs according to their abuse potential.
39. Schedule I drugs, such as heroin, have a high abuse potential and have no currently accepted medical use in the United States.

40. Schedule II drugs, such as morphine, opium, and meperidine (Demerol), have a high abuse potential, but currently have accepted medical uses. Their use may lead to physical or psychological dependence.

41. Schedule III drugs, such as paregoric and butabarbital (Butisol), have a lower abuse potential than Schedule I or II drugs. Abuse of Schedule III drugs may lead to moderate or low physical or psychological dependence, or both.

42. Schedule IV drugs, such as chloral hydrate, have a low abuse potential compared with Schedule III drugs.

43. Schedule V drugs, such as cough syrups that contain codeine, have the lowest abuse potential of the controlled substances.

44. Activities of daily living are actions that the patient must perform every day to provide self-care and to interact with society.

45. Testing of the six cardinal fields of gaze evaluates the function of all extraocular muscles and cranial nerves III, IV, and VI.

46. The six types of heart murmurs are graded from 1 to 6. A grade 6 heart murmur can be heard with the stethoscope slightly raised from the chest.

47. The most important goal to include in a care plan is the patient’s goal.

48. Fruits are high in fiber and low in protein, and should be omitted from a low-residue diet.

49. The nurse should use an objective scale to assess and quantify pain. Postoperative pain varies greatly among individuals.

50. Postmortem care includes cleaning and preparing the deceased patient for family viewing, arranging transportation to the morgue or funeral home, and determining the disposition of belongings.

51. The nurse should provide honest answers to the patient’s questions.

52. Milk shouldn’t be included in a clear liquid diet.

53. When caring for an infant, a child, or a confused patient, consistency in nursing personnel is paramount.

54. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary gland.

55. The three membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord are the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid.

56. A nasogastric tube is used to remove fluid and gas from the small intestine preoperatively or postoperatively.

57. Psychologists, physical therapists, and chiropractors aren’t authorized to write prescriptions for drugs.

58. The area around a stoma is cleaned with mild soap and water.

59. Vegetables have a high fiber content.

60. The nurse should use a tuberculin syringe to administer a subcutaneous injection of less than 1 ml.

61. For adults, subcutaneous injections require a 25G 5/8″ to 1″ needle; for infants, children, elderly, or very thin patients, they require a 25G to 27G ½” needle.

62. Before administering a drug, the nurse should identify the patient by checking the identification band and asking the patient to state his name.

63. To clean the skin before an injection, the nurse uses a sterile alcohol swab to wipe from the center of the site outward in a circular motion.

64. The nurse should inject heparin deep into subcutaneous tissue at a 90-degree angle (perpendicular to the skin) to prevent skin irritation.

65. If blood is aspirated into the syringe before an I.M. injection, the nurse should withdraw the needle, prepare another syringe, and repeat the procedure.

66. The nurse shouldn’t cut the patient’s hair without written consent from the patient or an appropriate relative.

67. If bleeding occurs after an injection, the nurse should apply pressure until the bleeding stops. If bruising occurs, the nurse should monitor the site for an enlarging hematoma.

68. When providing hair and scalp care, the nurse should begin combing at the end of the hair and work toward the head.

69. The frequency of patient hair care depends on the length and texture of the hair, the duration of hospitalization, and the patient’s condition.

70. Proper function of a hearing aid requires careful handling during insertion and removal, regular cleaning of the ear piece to prevent wax buildup, and prompt replacement of dead batteries.

71. The hearing aid that’s marked with a blue dot is for the left ear; the one with a red dot is for the right ear.

72. A hearing aid shouldn’t be exposed to heat or humidity and shouldn’t be immersed in water.

73. The nurse should instruct the patient to avoid using hair spray while wearing a hearing aid.

74. The five branches of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacotherapeutics, toxicology, and pharmacognosy.
75. The nurse should remove heel protectors every 8 hours to inspect the foot for signs of skin breakdown.

76. Heat is applied to promote vasodilation, which reduces pain caused by inflammation.

77. A sutured surgical incision is an example of healing by first intention (healing directly, without granulation).

78. Healing by secondary intention (healing by granulation) is closure of the wound when granulation tissue fills the defect and allows reepithelialization to occur, beginning at the wound edges and continuing to the center, until the entire wound is covered.
79. Keloid formation is an abnormality in healing that’s characterized by overgrowth of scar tissue at the wound site.

80. The nurse should administer procaine penicillin by deep I.M. injection in the upper outer portion of the buttocks in the adult or in the midlateral thigh in the child. The nurse shouldn’t massage the injection site.

81. An ascending colostomy drains fluid feces. A descending colostomy drains solid fecal matter.

82. A folded towel (scrotal bridge) can provide scrotal support for the patient with scrotal edema caused by vasectomy, epididymitis, or orchitis.

83. When giving an injection to a patient who has a bleeding disorder, the nurse should use a small-gauge needle and apply pressure to the site for 5 minutes after the injection.

84. Platelets are the smallest and most fragile formed element of the blood and are essential for coagulation.

85. To insert a nasogastric tube, the nurse instructs the patient to tilt the head back slightly and then inserts the tube. When the nurse feels the tube curving at the pharynx, the nurse should tell the patient to tilt the head forward to close the trachea and open the esophagus by swallowing. (Sips of water can facilitate this action.)

86. Families with loved ones in intensive care units report that their four most important needs are to have their questions answered honestly, to be assured that the best possible care is being provided, to know the patient’s prognosis, and to feel that there is hope of recovery.

87. Double-bind communication occurs when the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal message and the receiver is unsure of which message to respond to.

88. A nonjudgmental attitude displayed by a nurse shows that she neither approves nor disapproves of the patient.

89. Target symptoms are those that the patient finds most distressing.

90. A patient should be advised to take aspirin on an empty stomach, with a full glass of water, and should avoid acidic foods such as coffee, citrus fruits, and cola.

91. For every patient problem, there is a nursing diagnosis; for every nursing diagnosis, there is a goal; and for every goal, there are interventions designed to make the goal a reality. The keys to answering examination questions correctly are identifying the problem presented, formulating a goal for the problem, and selecting the intervention from the choices provided that will enable the patient to reach that goal.

92. Fidelity means loyalty and can be shown as a commitment to the profession of nursing and to the patient.

93. Administering an I.M. injection against the patient’s will and without legal authority is battery.

94. An example of a third-party payer is an insurance company.

95. The formula for calculating the drops per minute for an I.V. infusion is as follows: (volume to be infused × drip factor) ÷ time in minutes = drops/minute

96. On-call medication should be given within 5 minutes of the call.

97. Usually, the best method to determine a patient’s cultural or spiritual needs is to ask him.

98. An incident report or unusual occurrence report isn’t part of a patient’s record, but is an in-house document that’s used for the purpose of correcting the problem.

99. Critical pathways are a multidisciplinary guideline for patient care.

100. When prioritizing nursing diagnoses, the following hierarchy should be used: Problems associated with the airway, those concerning breathing, and those related to circulation.

101. The two nursing diagnoses that have the highest priority that the nurse can assign are Ineffective airway clearance and Ineffective breathing pattern.

102. A subjective sign that a sitz bath has been effective is the patient’s expression of decreased pain or discomfort.

103. For the nursing diagnosis Deficient diversional activity to be valid, the patient must state that he’s “bored,” that he has “nothing to do,” or words to that effect.

104. The most appropriate nursing diagnosis for an individual who doesn’t speak English is Impaired verbal communication related to inability to speak dominant language (English).

105. The family of a patient who has been diagnosed as hearing impaired should be instructed to face the individual when they speak to him.

106. Before instilling medication into the ear of a patient who is up to age 3, the nurse should pull the pinna down and back to straighten the eustachian tube.

107. To prevent injury to the cornea when administering eyedrops, the nurse should waste the first drop and instill the drug in the lower conjunctival sac.

108. After administering eye ointment, the nurse should twist the medication tube to detach the ointment.

109. When the nurse removes gloves and a mask, she should remove the gloves first. They are soiled and are likely to contain pathogens.

110. Crutches should be placed 6″ (15.2 cm) in front of the patient and 6″ to the side to form a tripod arrangement.

111. Listening is the most effective communication technique.

112. Before teaching any procedure to a patient, the nurse must assess the patient’s current knowledge and willingness to learn.

113. Process recording is a method of evaluating one’s communication effectiveness.

114. When feeding an elderly patient, the nurse should limit high-carbohydrate foods because of the risk of glucose intolerance.

115. When feeding an elderly patient, essential foods should be given first.

116. Passive range of motion maintains joint mobility. Resistive exercises increase muscle mass.

117. Isometric exercises are performed on an extremity that’s in a cast.

118. A back rub is an example of the gate-control theory of pain.

119. Anything that’s located below the waist is considered unsterile; a sterile field becomes unsterile when it comes in contact with any unsterile item; a sterile field must be monitored continuously; and a border of 1″ (2.5 cm) around a sterile field is considered unsterile.

120. A “shift to the left” is evident when the number of immature cells (bands) in the blood increases to fight an infection.

121. A “shift to the right” is evident when the number of mature cells in the blood increases, as seen in advanced liver disease and pernicious anemia.

122. Before administering preoperative medication, the nurse should ensure that an informed consent form has been signed and attached to the patient’s record.

123. A nurse should spend no more than 30 minutes per 8-hour shift providing care to a patient who has a radiation implant.

124. A nurse shouldn’t be assigned to care for more than one patient who has a radiation implant.

125. Long-handled forceps and a lead-lined container should be available in the room of a patient who has a radiation implant.

126. Usually, patients who have the same infection and are in strict isolation can share a room.

127. Diseases that require strict isolation include chickenpox, diphtheria, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg disease.

128. For the patient who abides by Jewish custom, milk and meat shouldn’t be served at the same meal.

129. Whether the patient can perform a procedure (psychomotor domain of learning) is a better indicator of the effectiveness of patient teaching than whether the patient can simply state the steps involved in the procedure (cognitive domain of learning).

130. According to Erik Erikson, developmental stages are trust versus mistrust (birth to 18 months), autonomy versus shame and doubt (18 months to age 3), initiative versus guilt (ages 3 to 5), industry versus inferiority (ages 5 to 12), identity versus identity diffusion (ages 12 to 18), intimacy versus isolation (ages 18 to 25), generativity versus stagnation (ages 25 to 60), and ego integrity versus despair (older than age 60).

131. When communicating with a hearing impaired patient, the nurse should face him.

132. An appropriate nursing intervention for the spouse of a patient who has a serious incapacitating disease is to help him to mobilize a support system.

133. Hyperpyrexia is extreme elevation in temperature above 106° F (41.1° C).

134. Milk is high in sodium and low in iron.

135. When a patient expresses concern about a health-related issue, before addressing the concern, the nurse should assess the patient’s level of knowledge.

136. The most effective way to reduce a fever is to administer an antipyretic, which lowers the temperature set point.

137. When a patient is ill, it’s essential for the members of his family to maintain communication about his health needs.

138. Ethnocentrism is the universal belief that one’s way of life is superior to others.

139. When a nurse is communicating with a patient through an interpreter, the nurse should speak to the patient and the interpreter.

140. In accordance with the “hot-cold” system used by some Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and other Hispanic and Latino groups, most foods, beverages, herbs, and drugs are described as “cold.”

141. Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals of a particular group.

142. Discrimination is preferential treatment of individuals of a particular group. It’s usually discussed in a negative sense.

143. Increased gastric motility interferes with the absorption of oral drugs.

144. The three phases of the therapeutic relationship are orientation, working, and termination.

145. Patients often exhibit resistive and challenging behaviors in the orientation phase of the therapeutic relationship.

146. Abdominal assessment is performed in the following order: inspection, auscultation, percussion & palpation.

147. When measuring blood pressure in a neonate, the nurse should select a cuff that’s no less than one-half and no more than two-thirds the length of the extremity that’s used.

148. When administering a drug by Z-track, the nurse shouldn’t use the same needle that was used to draw the drug into the syringe because doing so could stain the skin.

149. Sites for intradermal injection include the inner arm, the upper chest, and on the back, under the scapula.

150. When evaluating whether an answer on an examination is correct, the nurse should consider whether the action that’s described promotes autonomy (independence), safety, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging.

151. When answering a question on the NCLEX examination, the student should consider the cue (the stimulus for a thought) and the inference (the thought) to determine whether the inference is correct. When in doubt, the nurse should select an answer that indicates the need for further information to eliminate ambiguity. For example, the patient complains of chest pain (the stimulus for the thought) and the nurse infers that the patient is having cardiac pain (the thought). In this case, the nurse hasn’t confirmed whether the pain is cardiac. It would be more appropriate to make further assessments.

152. Veracity is truth and is an essential component of a therapeutic relationship between a health care provider and his patient.

153. Beneficence is the duty to do no harm and the duty to do good. There’s an obligation in patient care to do no harm and an equal obligation to assist the patient.

154. Nonmaleficence is the duty to do no harm.

155. Frye’s ABCDE cascade provides a framework for prioritizing care by identifying the most important treatment concerns.

156. A = Airway. This category includes everything that affects a patent airway, including a foreign object, fluid from an upper respiratory infection, and edema from trauma or an allergic reaction.

157. B = Breathing. This category includes everything that affects the breathing pattern, including hyperventilation or hypoventilation and abnormal breathing patterns, such as Korsakoff’s, Biot’s, or Cheyne-Stokes respiration.

158. C = Circulation. This category includes everything that affects the circulation, including fluid and electrolyte disturbances and disease processes that affect cardiac output.

159. D = Disease processes. If the patient has no problem with the airway, breathing, or circulation, then the nurse should evaluate the disease processes, giving priority to the disease process that poses the greatest immediate risk. For example, if a patient has terminal cancer and hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia is a more immediate concern.

160. E = Everything else. This category includes such issues as writing an incident report and completing the patient chart. When evaluating needs, this category is never the highest priority.

161. When answering a question on an NCLEX examination, the basic rule is “assess before action.” The student should evaluate each possible answer carefully. Usually, several answers reflect the implementation phase of nursing and one or two reflect the assessment phase. In this case, the best choice is an assessment response unless a specific course of action is clearly indicated.

162. Rule utilitarianism is known as the “greatest good for the greatest number of people” theory.

163. Egalitarian theory emphasizes that equal access to goods and services must be provided to the less fortunate by an affluent society.

164. Active euthanasia is actively helping a person to die.

165. Brain death is irreversible cessation of all brain function.

166. Passive euthanasia is stopping the therapy that’s sustaining life.

167. A third-party payer is an insurance company.

168. Utilization review is performed to determine whether the care provided to a patient was appropriate and cost-effective.
169. A value cohort is a group of people who experienced an out-of-the-ordinary event that shaped their values.

170. Voluntary euthanasia is actively helping a patient to die at the patient’s request.

171. Bananas, citrus fruits, and potatoes are good sources of potassium.

172. Good sources of magnesium include fish, nuts, and grains.

173. Beef, oysters, shrimp, scallops, spinach, beets, and greens are good sources of iron.

174. Intrathecal injection is administering a drug through the spine.

175. When a patient asks a question or makes a statement that’s emotionally charged, the nurse should respond to the emotion behind the statement or question rather than to what’s being said or asked.

176. The steps of the trajectory-nursing model are as follows:
177. Step 1: Identifying the trajectory phase
178. Step 2: Identifying the problems and establishing goals
179. Step 3: Establishing a plan to meet the goals
180. Step 4: Identifying factors that facilitate or hinder attainment of the goals
181. Step 5: Implementing interventions
182. Step 6: Evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions

183. A Hindu patient is likely to request a vegetarian diet.

184. Pain threshold, or pain sensation, is the initial point at which a patient feels pain.

185. The difference between acute pain and chronic pain is its duration.

186. Referred pain is pain that’s felt at a site other than its origin.

187. Alleviating pain by performing a back massage is consistent with the gate control theory.

188. Romberg’s test is a test for balance or gait.

189. Pain seems more intense at night because the patient isn’t distracted by daily activities.

190. Older patients commonly don’t report pain because of fear of treatment, lifestyle changes, or dependency.

191. No pork or pork products are allowed in a Muslim diet.

192. Two goals of Healthy People 2010 are:
193. Help individuals of all ages to increase the quality of life and the number of years of optimal health
194. Eliminate health disparities among different segments of the population.

195. A community nurse is serving as a patient’s advocate if she tells a malnourished patient to go to a meal program at a local park.

196. If a patient isn’t following his treatment plan, the nurse should first ask why.

197. Falls are the leading cause of injury in elderly people.

198. Primary prevention is true prevention. Examples are immunizations, weight control, and smoking cessation.

199. Secondary prevention is early detection. Examples include purified protein derivative (PPD), breast self-examination, testicular self-examination, and chest X-ray.

200. Tertiary prevention is treatment to prevent long-term complications.

201. A patient indicates that he’s coming to terms with having a chronic disease when he says, “I’m never going to get any better.”

202. On noticing religious artifacts and literature on a patient’s night stand, a culturally aware nurse would ask the patient the meaning of the items.

203. A Mexican patient may request the intervention of a curandero, or faith healer, who involves the family in healing the patient.

204. In an infant, the normal hemoglobin value is 12 g/dl.

205. The nitrogen balance estimates the difference between the intake and use of protein.

206. Most of the absorption of water occurs in the large intestine.

207. Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.

208. When assessing a patient’s eating habits, the nurse should ask, “What have you eaten in the last 24 hours?”

209. A vegan diet should include an abundant supply of fiber.

210. A hypotonic enema softens the feces, distends the colon, and stimulates peristalsis.

211. First-morning urine provides the best sample to measure glucose, ketone, pH, and specific gravity values.

212. To induce sleep, the first step is to minimize environmental stimuli.

213. Before moving a patient, the nurse should assess the patient’s physical abilities and ability to understand instructions as well as the amount of strength required to move the patient.

214. To lose 1 lb (0.5 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly intake by 3,500 calories (approximately 500 calories daily). To lose 2 lb (1 kg) in 1 week, the patient must decrease his weekly caloric intake by 7,000 calories (approximately 1,000 calories daily).

215. To avoid shearing force injury, a patient who is completely immobile is lifted on a sheet.

216. To insert a catheter from the nose through the trachea for suction, the nurse should ask the patient to swallow.

217. Vitamin C is needed for collagen production.

218. Only the patient can describe his pain accurately.

219. Cutaneous stimulation creates the release of endorphins that block the transmission of pain stimuli.

220. Patient-controlled analgesia is a safe method to relieve acute pain caused by surgical incision, traumatic injury, labor and delivery, or cancer.

221. An Asian American or European American typically places distance between himself and others when communicating.

222. The patient who believes in a scientific, or biomedical, approach to health is likely to expect a drug, treatment, or surgery to cure illness.

223. Chronic illnesses occur in very young as well as middle-aged and very old people.

224. The trajectory framework for chronic illness states that preferences about daily life activities affect treatment decisions.

225. Exacerbations of chronic disease usually cause the patient to seek treatment and may lead to hospitalization.

226. School health programs provide cost-effective health care for low-income families and those who have no health insurance.

227. Collegiality is the promotion of collaboration, development, and interdependence among members of a profession.

228. A change agent is an individual who recognizes a need for change or is selected to make a change within an established entity, such as a hospital.

229. The patients’ bill of rights was introduced by the American Hospital Association.

230. Abandonment is premature termination of treatment without the patient’s permission and without appropriate relief of symptoms.

231. Values clarification is a process that individuals use to prioritize their personal values.

232. Distributive justice is a principle that promotes equal treatment for all.

233. Milk and milk products, poultry, grains, and fish are good sources of phosphate.

234. The best way to prevent falls at night in an oriented, but restless, elderly patient is to raise the side rails.

235. By the end of the orientation phase, the patient should begin to trust the nurse.

236. Falls in the elderly are likely to be caused by poor vision.

237. Barriers to communication include language deficits, sensory deficits, cognitive impairments, structural deficits, and paralysis.

238. The three elements that are necessary for a fire are heat, oxygen, and combustible material.

239. Sebaceous glands lubricate the skin.

240. To check for petechiae in a dark-skinned patient, the nurse should assess the oral mucosa.

241. To put on a sterile glove, the nurse should pick up the first glove at the folded border and adjust the fingers when both gloves are on.

242. To increase patient comfort, the nurse should let the alcohol dry before giving an intramuscular injection.

243. Treatment for a stage 1 ulcer on the heels includes heel protectors.

244. Seventh-Day Adventists are usually vegetarians.

245. Endorphins are morphine-like substances that produce a feeling of well-being.

246. Pain tolerance is the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure.

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