Pregnancy induced hypertension, also known as gestational hypertension, is a potentially life-threatening disorder that usually develops late in the second trimester or in the third trimester. The non-convulsive form of PIH is termed as preeclampsia ranging from mild to severe. The convulsive form is eclampsia. The cause of this disorder is unknown but geographic, ethnic, racial, nutritional, immunologic, and familial factors and preexisting vascular disease may contribute to its development.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care for PIH involves providing adequate nutrition, good prenatal care, and control of pre-existing hypertension during pregnancy decrease the incidence and severity of preeclampsia. Early recognition and prompt treatment of preeclampsia can prevent progression to eclampsia.
- Deficient Fluid Volume
- Decreased Cardiac Output
- Altered Tissue Perfusion (Uteroplacental)
- Risk for Maternal Injury
- Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Deficient Knowledge
- Deficient Knowledge
May be related to
- Lack of exposure
- Unfamiliarity with information resources
Possibly evidenced by
- Request for information
- Statement of misconceptions
- Inaccurate follow-through of instructions
- Development of preventable complications
- Patient identifies signs/symptoms requiring medical evaluation.
- Patient performs necessary procedures correctly.
- Patient verbalizes understanding of disease process and appropriate treatment plan.
- Patient initiate lifestyle/behavior changes as indicated.
|Assess patient’s/couple’s knowledge of the disease process. Provide information about pathophysiology of PIH, implications for mother and fetus; and the rationale for interventions, procedures, and tests, as needed.||Establishes data base and provides information. Provide information about areas in which learning is needed. Taking information can improve understanding and reduce fear, helping to facilitate the treatment plan for the client. Note: Current research in progress may provide additional treatment options, such as using low-dose (60 mg/day) aspirin to reduce thromboxane generation by platelets, limiting the severity/incidence of PIH.|
|Provide information about signs/symptoms indicating worsening of condition, and instruct patient when to notify healthcare provider.||Helps ensure that patient seeks timely treatment and may prevent worsening of preeclamptic state or additional complications.|
|Have patient informed of health status, results of when tests, and fetal well-being.||Fears and anxieties can be compounded when patient/couple does not have adequate information about the state of the disease process or its impact on patient and fetus.|
|Educate patient on how to monitor her own weight at home, and to notify healthcare provider if gain is in excess of 2 lb/wk, or 0.5 lb/day.||Gain of 3.3 lb or greater per month in second trimester or 1 lb or greater per week in third trimester is suggestive of PIH.|
|Educate and assist family members in learning the procedure for home monitoring of BP, as indicated.||Encourages cooperation in treatment regimen, allows immediate intervention as needed, and may provide reassurance that efforts are beneficial.|
|Review techniques for stress management and diet restriction.||Strengthens importance of patient’s responsibility in treatment.|
|Provide information about ensuring enough protein in diet for patient with possible or mild preeclampsia.||Protein is essential for intravascular and extravascular fluid regulation.|
|Review self-testing of urine for protein. Reinforce rationale for and implications of testing.||A test result of 2+ or greater is vital and needs to be reported to healthcare provider. Urine specimen contaminated by vaginal discharge or RBCs may produce positive test result for protein.|
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Maternal and Newborn Care Plans
Nursing care plans related to the care of the pregnant mother and her infant. See care plans for maternity and obstetric nursing:
- Abruptio Placenta| 3 Care Plan
- Cesarean Birth | 10 Care Plans
- Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip | 6 Care Plans
- Dysfunctional Labor (Dystocia) | 4 Care Plans
- Elective Termination | 6 Care Plans
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus | 4 Care Plans
- Hyperbilirubinemia | 4 Care Plans
- Labor Stages, Induced and Augmented Labor | 36 Care Plans
- Neonatal Sepsis | 5 Care Plans
- Perinatal Loss | 5 Care Plans
- Placenta Previa | 3 Care Plans
- Postpartum Hemorrhage | 8 Care Plans
- Postpartum Thrombophlebitis | 4 Care Plans
- Prenatal Hemorrhage | 7 Care Plans
- Prenatal Substance Dependence/Abuse | 6 Care Plans
- Precipitous Labor | 3 Care Plans
- Pregnancy Induced Hypertension | 6 Care Plans
- Premature Dilation of the Cervix | 3 Care Plans
- Prenatal Infection | 3 Care Plans
- Preterm Labor | 6 Care Plans
- Puerperal Infection | 4 Care Plans