Urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the urinary tract (kidney, bladder, urethra). The majority of UTIs are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), normally found in the digestive system. Usually, bacteria that enter the urinary tract system are removed by the body before they can cause symptoms. But, in some cases, bacteria overcomes the natural defenses of the body, therefore causes infection.
An infection in the urethra is called urethritis. A bladder infection is called cystitis. Bacteria may ascend up to the ureters to multiply and cause the infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis).
Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections include; fever, chills, a strong, persistent urge to urinate, burning sensation when urinating, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and pelvic pain in women.
The focus of this care plan for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) include relief of pain and discomfort, increased knowledge of preventive measures and treatment regimen, and absence of complications.
Here are six (6) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis for patients with urinary tract infections (UTI):
- Impaired Urinary Elimination
- Acute Pain
- Deficient Knowledge
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern
May be related to
- Chronically alkaline urine.
- Improper toileting.
- Indwelling catheter.
- Instrumentation or catheterization.
- Urinary retention.
Possibly evidenced by
- Burning sensation with urination.
- Cognitive changes among older adults.
- Fever and chills.
- Flank pain.
- Frequency of urination.
- Foul-smelling urine.
- Increased white blood cell count (WBC).
- Suprapubic tenderness.
- Client will be free of urinary tract infection as evidenced by the absence of fever, chills, flank pain, and suprapubic tenderness; clear non-foul smelling urine and a normal WBC count.
|Assess for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection.||Common symptoms includes fever, chills, cloudy urine, reports of frequency, urgency, or burning on urination;|
|Assess for risk factors for UTI.||A history of sexually transmitted infections, catheter use, and previous surgeries of the genitourinary tract are at risk of developing UTI; Blockages of the urinary tract, such as those caused by a kidney stone or an enlarged prostate, can block the flow of urine also increases the risk of UTI.|
|Monitor laboratory as indicated:|
|Increased WBC count is a systemic response to infection.|
|The presence of RBCs and WBCs in the urine is associated with the inflammation process during an infection.|
|Bacterial counts of 105 are usually considered diagnostic for UTI, although lower counts may also indicate UTI.|
|This will determine which antibiotics are most suitable to treat the infection|
|Encouraged the client to void often every 2 to 3 hours a day and completely empty the bladder.||This will prevent bladder distention, facilitate flushing of the bacteria and avoid reinfection.|
|Encouraged increased oral fluid intake (2 to 3 liters a day if no contraindication).||Fluid intake facilitates urine production and flushes bacteria from the urinary tract.|
|Suggest drinking of cranberry juice (four to six 8 ounce glasses per day).||Cranberry juice has been shown to reduce adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelial cells in the urinary tract.|
|Suggest the use of vitamin C. (500 to 100 mg/day).||Bacteria grow properly in an acidic environment. The use of vitamin C will help in the acidification of the urine.|
|Limit the use of indwelling bladder catheters to manage incontinence.||Catheter use increases the risk for UTI. Alternative measures such as regular toileting can prevent infection.|
|Encouraged the client to complete the whole duration of the antibiotic (The usual length of antibiotic therapy is 7 to 10 days).||Client’s should finish the prescribed duration of the antibiotics, even if the symptoms disappear, because not finishing a course of antibiotics may result to reinfection.|
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