Urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the urinary tract (kidney, bladder, urethra). The majority of UTIs are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), normally found in the digestive system. Usually, bacteria that enter the urinary tract system are removed by the body before they can cause symptoms. But, in some cases, bacteria overcomes the natural defenses of the body, therefore causes infection.
An infection in the urethra is called urethritis. A bladder infection is called cystitis. Bacteria may ascend up to the ureters to multiply and cause the infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis).
Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections include; fever, chills, a strong, persistent urge to urinate, burning sensation when urinating, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and pelvic pain in women.
The focus of this care plan for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) include relief of pain and discomfort, increased knowledge of preventive measures and treatment regimen, and absence of complications.
Here are six (6) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis for patients with urinary tract infections (UTI):
- Impaired Urinary Elimination
- Acute Pain
- Deficient Knowledge
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern
Acute Pain: Unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage; sudden or slow onset of any intensity from mild to severe with anticipated or predictable end and a duration of <6 months.
May be related to
- Inflammation and infection of the urethra, bladder, and other urinary tract structures.
Possibly evidenced by
- Burning on urination.
- Facial grimace.
- Guarding behavior.
- Protective decreased physical activity.
- Spasm in the lower back and bladder area.
- Client will use pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain relief strategies.
- Client will report satisfactory pain control at a level less than 3 to 4 on a scale of 0 to 10.
|Assess client’s description of pain such as quality, nature and severity of pain.||Pain associated with UTI is described as burning on urination,flank pain, lower abdominal or suprapubic pain. While some clients with recurrent infection are asymptomatic. This information will help in determining the choice of intervention.|
|Suggest use of non-pharmacological techniques as appropriate.||Alternative therapies such as relaxation, massage, guided imagery, or distraction may decrease pain and provide comfort.|
|Encourage increased oral fluid intake (2-3 liters if no contraindications).||Increased hydration helps in flushing the bacteria and toxins.|
|Encouraged the use of a sitz bath.||Sitz baths may reduce perineal pain and promotes muscle relaxation.|
|Instruct to avoid coffee, tea, alcohol, and sodas.||These food items cause irritation to the urinary system and should be avoided.|
|Apply a heating pad to the suprapubic area or lower back.||This measure alleviates the pain.|
|Encouraged the use of analgesic (e.g., acetaminophen) or antispasmodics (e.g., phenazopyridine).||Antispasmodic and analgesic agents are useful in relieving bladder irritability, spasm, and pain.|
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