Are you familiar with the history of nursing? How about the underlying concepts about it? Take this 100-item examination about Fundamentals of Nursing: History, Concepts and Theories. *Some questions apply to Filipino nurses only.


  • Historical perspectives in nursing
  • History of nursing in the Philippines
  • Theories and theorists in nursing
  • Health care delivery system
  • Nursing as a profession


  • Read each question carefully and choose the best answer.
  • You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely!
  • Answers and rationales are given below. Be sure to read them.
  • If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section.


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1. The four major concepts in nursing theory are the

A. Person, Environment, Nurse, Health
B. Nurse, Person, Environment, Cure
C. Promotive, Preventive, Curative, Rehabilitative
D. Person, Environment, Nursing, Health

2. The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery is theorized by

A. Nightingale
B. Benner
C. Swanson
D. King

3. For her, Nursing is a theoretical system of knowledge that prescribes a process of analysis and action related to care of the ill person

A. King
B. Henderson
C. Roy
D. Leininger

4. According to her, Nursing is a helping or assisting profession to persons who are wholly or partly dependent or when those who are supposedly caring for them are no longer able to give care.

A. Henderson
B. Orem
C. Swanson
D. Neuman

5. Nursing is a unique profession, Concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stressors, which are intra, inter and extra personal in nature.

A. Neuman
B. Johnson
C. Watson
D. Parse

6. The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health that he would perform unaided if he has the necessary strength, will and knowledge, and do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.

A. Henderson
B. Abdellah
C. Levin
D. Peplau

7. Caring is the essence and central unifying, a dominant domain that distinguishes nursing from other health disciplines. Care is an essential human need.

A. Benner
B. Watson
C. Leininger
D. Swanson


A. Benner
B. Watson
C. Leininger
D. Swanson

9. Caring is healing, it is communicated through the consciousness of the nurse to the individual being cared for. It allows access to higher human spirit.

A. Benner
B. Watson
C. Leininger
D. Swanson

10. Caring means that person, events, projects and things matter to people. It reveals stress and coping options. Caring creates responsibility. It is an inherent feature of nursing practice. It helps the nurse assist clients to recover in the face of the illness.

A. Benner
B. Watson
C. Leininger
D. Swanson

11. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about profession according to Marie Jahoda?

A. A profession is an organization of an occupational group based on the application of special knowledge
B. It serves specific interest of a group
C. It is altruistic
D. Quality of work is of greater importance than the rewards

12. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of a professional?

A. Concerned with quantity
B. Self directed
C. Committed to spirit of inquiry
D. Independent

13. The most unique characteristic of nursing as a profession is

A. Education
B. Theory
C. Caring
D. Autonomy

14. This is the distinctive individual qualities that differentiate a person to another

A. Philosophy
B. Personality
C. Charm
D. Character

15. Refers to the moral values and beliefs that are used as guides to personal behavior and actions

A. Philosophy
B. Personality
C. Charm
D. Character

16. As a nurse manager, which of the following best describes this function?

A. Initiate modification on client’s lifestyle
B. Protect client’s right
C. Coordinates the activities of other members of the health team in managing patient care
D. Provide in service education programs, Use accurate nursing audit, formulate philosophy and vision of the institution

17. What best describes nurses as a care provider?

A. Determine client’s need
B. Provide direct nursing care
C. Help client recognize and cope with stressful psychological situation
D. Works in combined effort with all those involved in patient’s care

18. The nurse questions a doctors order of Morphine sulfate 50 mg, IM for a client with pancreatitis. Which role best fit that statement?

A. Change agent
B. Client advocate
C. Case manager
D. Collaborator

19. These are nursing intervention that requires knowledge, skills and expertise of multiple health professionals.

A. Dependent
B. Independent
C. Interdependent
D. Intradependent

20. What type of patient care model is the most common for student nurses and private duty nurses?

A. Total patient care
B. Team nursing
C. Primary Nursing
D. Case management

21. This is the best patient care model when there are many nurses but few patients.

A. Functional nursing
B. Team nursing
C. Primary nursing
D. Total patient care

22. This patient care model works best when there are plenty of patient but few nurses

A. Functional nursing
B. Team nursing
C. Primary nursing
D. Total patient care

23. RN assumes 24 hour responsibility for the client to maintain continuity of care across shifts, days or visits.

A. Functional nursing
B. Team nursing
C. Primary nursing
D. Total patient care

24. Who developed the first theory of nursing?

A. Hammurabi
B. Alexander
C. Fabiola
D. Nightingale

25. She introduces the NATURE OF NURSING MODEL.

A. Henderson
B. Nightingale
C. Parse
D. Orlando

26. She described the four conservation principle.

A. Levin
B. Leininger
C. Orlando
D. Parse


A. Henderson
B. Orem
C. Parse
D. Neuman

28. Conceptualized the BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM MODEL

A. Orem
B. Johnson
C. Henderson
D. Parse


A. Swanson
B. Hall
C. Weidenbach
D. Zderad

30. Developed the ROLE MODELING and MODELING theory

A. Erickson,Tomlin,Swain
B. Neuman
C. Newman
D. Benner and Wrubel


A. Erickson, Tomlin, Swain
B. Peterson,Zderad
C. Bnner,Wrubel
D. Boykin,Schoenhofer


A. Travelbee
B. Swanson
C. Zderad
D. Peplau

33. He proposed the theory of morality that is based on MUTUAL TRUST

A. Freud
B. Erikson
C. Kohlberg
D. Peters

34. He proposed the theory of morality based on PRINCIPLES

A. Freud
B. Erikson
C. Kohlberg
D. Peters

35. Freud postulated that child adopts parental standards and traits through

A. Imitation
B. Introjection
C. Identification
D. Regression

36. According to them, Morality is measured of how people treat human being and that a moral child strives to be kind and just

A. Zderad and Peterson
B. Benner and Wrubel
C. Fowler and Westerhoff
D. Schulman and Mekler

37. Postulated that FAITH is the way of behaving. He developed four theories of faith and development based on his experience.

A. Giligan
B. Westerhoff
C. Fowler
D. Freud

38. He described the development of faith. He suggested that faith is a spiritual dimension that gives meaning to a persons life. Faith according to him, is a relational phenomenon.

A. Giligan
B. Westerhoff
C. Fowler
D. Freud

39. Established in 1906 by the Baptist foreign mission society of America. Miss rose nicolet, was it’s first superintendent.

A. St. Paul Hospital School of nursing
B. Iloilo Mission Hospital School of nursing
C. Philippine General Hospital School of nursing
D. St. Luke’s Hospital School of nursing

40. Anastacia Giron-Tupas was the first Filipino nurse to occupy the position of chief nurse in this hospital.

A. St. Paul Hospital
B. Iloilo Mission Hospital
C. Philippine General Hospital
D. St. Luke’s Hospital

41. She was the daughter of Hungarian kings, who feed 300-900 people everyday in their gate, builds hospitals, and care of the poor and sick herself.

A. Elizabeth
B. Catherine
C. Nightingale
D. Sairey Gamp

42. She dies of yellow fever in her search for truth to prove that yellow fever is carried by a mosquitoes.

A. Clara louise Maas
B. Pearl Tucker
C. Isabel Hampton Robb
D. Caroline Hampton Robb

43. He was called the father of sanitation.

A. Abraham
B. Hippocrates
C. Moses
D. Willam Halstead

44. The country where SHUSHURUTU originated

A. China
B. Egypt
C. India
D. Babylonia

45. They put girls clothes on male infants to drive evil forces away

A. Chinese
B. Egyptian
C. Indian
D. Babylonian

46. In what period of nursing does people believe in TREPHINING to drive evil forces away?

A. Dark period
B. Intuitive period
C. Contemporary period
D. Educative period

47. This period ended when Pastor Fliedner, build Kaiserwerth institute for the training of Deaconesses

A. Apprentice period
B. Dark period
C. Contemporary period
D. Educative period

48. Period of nursing where religious Christian orders emerged to take care of the sick

A. Apprentice period
B. Dark period
C. Contemporary period
D. Educative period

49. Founded the second order of St. Francis of Assisi

A. St. Catherine
B. St. Anne
C. St. Clare
D. St. Elizabeth

50. This period marked the religious upheaval of Luther, Who questions the Christian faith.

A. Apprentice period
B. Dark period
C. Contemporary period
D. Educative period

51. According to the Biopsychosocial and spiritual theory of Sister Callista Roy, Man, As a SOCIAL being is

A. Like all other men
B. Like some other men
C. Like no other men
D. Like men

52. She conceptualized that man, as an Open system is in constant interaction and transaction with a changing environment.

A. Roy
B. Levin
C. Neuman
D. Newman

53. In a CLOSED system, which of the following is true?

A. Affected by matter
B. A sole island in vast ocean
C. Allows input
D. Constantly affected by matter, energy, information

54. Who postulated the WHOLISTIC concept that the totality is greater than sum of its parts?

A. Roy
B. Rogers
C. Henderson
D. Johnson

55. She theorized that man is composed of sub and supra systems. Subsystems are cells, tissues, organs and systems while the suprasystems are family, society and community.

A. Roy
B. Rogers
C. Henderson
D. Johnson

56. Which of the following is not true about the human needs?

A. Certain needs are common to all people
B. Needs should be followed exactly in accordance with their hierarchy
C. Needs are stimulated by internal factors
D. Needs are stimulated by external factors

57. Which of the following is TRUE about the human needs?

A. May not be deferred
B. Are not interrelated
C. Met in exact and rigid way
D. Priorities are alterable

58. According to Maslow, which of the following is NOT TRUE about a self actualized person?

A. Understands poetry, music, philosophy, science etc.
B. Desires privacy, autonomous
C. Follows the decision of the majority, uphold justice and truth
D. Problem centered

59. According to Maslow, which of the following is TRUE about a self actualized person?

A. Makes decision contrary to public opinion
B. Do not predict events
C. Self centered
D. Maximum degree of self conflict

60. This is the essence of mental health

A. Self awareness
B. Self actualization
C. Self esteem
D. Self worth

61. Florence Nightingale was born in

A. Germany
B. Britain
C. France
D. Italy

62. Which is unlikely of Florence Nightingale?

A. Born May 12, 1840
B. Built St. Thomas school of nursing when she was 40 years old
C. Notes in nursing
D. Notes in hospital

63. What country did Florence Nightingale train in nursing?

A. Belgium
C. Germany
D. England

64. Which of the following is recognized for developing the concept of HIGH LEVEL WELLNESS?

A. Erikson
B. Madaw
C. Peplau
D. Dunn

65. One of the expectations is for nurses to join professional association primarily because of

A. Promotes advancement and professional growth among its members
B. Works for raising funds for nurse’s benefit
C. Facilitate and establishes acquaintances
D. Assist them and securing jobs abroad

66. Founder of the PNA

A. Julita Sotejo
B. Anastacia Giron Tupas
C. Eufemia Octaviano
D. Anesia Dionisio

67. Which of the following provides that nurses must be a member of a national nurse organization?

A. R.A 877
B. 1981 Code of ethics approved by the house of delegates and the PNA
C. Board resolution No. 1955 Promulgated by the BON
D. RA 7164

68. Which of the following best describes the action of a nurse who documents her nursing diagnosis?

A. She documents it and charts it whenever necessary
B. She can be accused of malpractice
C. She does it regularly as an important responsibility
D. She charts it only when the patient is acutely ill

69. Which of the following does not govern nursing practice?

A. RA 7164
B. RA 9173
C. BON Res. Code Of Ethics
D. BON Res. Scope of Nursing Practice

70. A nurse who is maintaining a private clinic in the community renders service on maternal and child health among the neighborhood for a fee is:

A. Primary care nurse
B. Independent nurse practitioner
C. Nurse-Midwife
D. Nurse specialist

71. When was the PNA founded?

A. September 22, 1922
B. September 02, 1920
C. October 21, 1922
D. September 02, 1922

72. Who was the first president of the PNA ?

A. Anastacia Giron-Tupas
B. Loreto Tupas
C. Rosario Montenegro
D. Ricarda Mendoza

73. Defines health as the ability to maintain internal milieu. Illness according to him/her/them is the failure to maintain internal environment.

A. Cannon
B. Bernard
C. Leddy and Pepper
D. Roy

74. Postulated that health is a state and process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person.

A. Cannon
B. Bernard
C. Dunn
D. Roy

75. What regulates HOMEOSTASIS according to the theory of Walter Cannon?

A. Positive feedback
B. Negative feedback
C. Buffer system
D. Various mechanisms

76. Stated that health is WELLNESS. A termed define by the culture or an individual.

A. Roy
B. Henderson
C. Rogers
D. King

77. Defined health as a dynamic state in the life cycle, and Illness as interference in the life cycle.

A. Roy
B. Henderson
C. Rogers
D. King

78. She defined health as the soundness and wholness of developed human structure and bodily mental functioning.

A. Orem
B. Henderson
C. Neuman
D. Clark

79. According to her, Wellness is a condition in which all parts and subparts of an individual are in harmony with the whole system.

A. Orem
B. Henderson
C. Neuman
D. Johnson

80. Postulated that health is reflected by the organization, interaction, interdependence and integration of the subsystem of the behavioral system.

A. Orem
B. Henderson
C. Neuman
D. Johnson

81. According to them, Well being is a subjective perception of BALANCE, HARMONY and VITALITY

A. Leavell and Clark
B. Peterson and Zderad
C. Benner and Wruber
D. Leddy and Pepper

82. He describes the WELLNESS-ILLNESS Continuum as interaction of the environment with well being and illness.

A. Cannon
B. Bernard
C. Dunn
D. Clark

83. An integrated method of functioning that is oriented towards maximizing one’s potential within the limitation of the environment.

A. Well being
B. Health
C. Low level Wellness
D. High level Wellness

84. What kind of illness precursor, according to DUNN is cigarette smoking?

A. Heredity
B. Social
C. Behavioral
D. Environmental

85. According to DUNN, Overcrowding is what type of illness precursor?

A. Heredity
B. Social
C. Behavioral
D. Environmental

86. Health belief model was formulated in 1975 by who?

A. Becker
B. Smith
C. Dunn
D. Leavell and Clark

87. In health belief model, Individual perception matters. Which of the following is highly UNLIKELY to influence preventive behavior?

A. Perceived susceptibility to an illness
B. Perceived seriousness of an illness
C. Perceived threat of an illness
D. Perceived curability of an illness

88. Which of the following is not a PERCEIVED BARRIER in preventive action?

A. Difficulty adhering to the lifestyle
B. Economic factors
C. Accessibility of health care facilities
D. Increase adherence to medical therapies

89. Conceptualizes that health is a condition of actualization or realization of person’s potential. Avers that the highest aspiration of people is fulfillment and complete development actualization.

A. Clinical Model
B. Role performance Model
C. Adaptive Model
D. Eudaemonistic Model

90. Views people as physiologic system and Absence of sign and symptoms equates health.

A. Clinical Model
B. Role performance Model
C. Adaptive Model
D. Eudaemonistic Model

91. Knowledge about the disease and prior contact with it is what type of VARIABLE according to the health belief model?

A. Demographic
B. Sociopsychologic
C. Structural
D. Cues to action

92. It includes internal and external factors that leads the individual to seek help

A. Demographic
B. Sociopsychological
C. Structural
D. Cues to action

93. Influence from peers and social pressure is included in what variable of HBM?

A. Demographic
B. Sociopsychological
C. Structural
D. Cues to action

94. Age, Sex, Race etc. is included in what variable of HBM?

A. Demographic
B. Sociopsychological
C. Structural
D. Cues to action

95. According to Leavell and Clark’s ecologic model, All of this are factors that affects health and illness except

A. Reservoir
B. Agent
C. Environment
D. Host

96. Is a multi dimensional model developed by PENDER that describes the nature of persons as they interact within the environment to pursue health

A. Ecologic Model
B. Health Belief Model
C. Health Promotion Model
D. Health Prevention Model

97. Defined by Pender as all activities directed toward increasing the level of well being and self actualization.

A. Health prevention
B. Health promotion
C. Health teaching
D. Self actualization

98. Defined as an alteration in normal function resulting in reduction of capacities and shortening of life span.

A. Illness
B. Disease
C. Health
D. Wellness

99. Personal state in which a person feels unhealthy

A. Illness
B. Disease
C. Health
D. Wellness

100. According to her, Caring is defined as a nurturant way of responding to a valued client towards whom the nurse feels a sense of commitment and responsibility.

A. Benner
B. Watson
C. Leininger
D. Swanson

Answers & Rationale

Gauge your performance by counter-checking your answers to those below. If you have disputes or further questions, please direct them to the comments section.

1. Answer: D. Person, Environment, Nursing, Health

Theorist always describes The nursing profession by first defining what is NURSING, followed by the PERSON, ENVIRONMENT and HEALTH CONCEPT. The most popular theory was perhaps Nightingale’s. She defined nursing as the utilization of the persons environment to assist him towards recovery. She defined the person as somebody who has a reparative capabilities mediated and enhanced by factors in his environment. She describes the environment as something that would facilitate the person’s reparative process and identified different factors like sanitation, noise, etc. that affects a person’s reparative state.

2. Answer: A. Nightingale

Florence Nightingale do not believe in the Germ Theory, and perhaps this was her biggest mistake. Yet, her theory was the first in nursing. She believed that manipulation of environment that includes appropriate noise, nutrition, hygiene, light, comfort, sanitation etc. could provide the client’s body the nurturance it needs for repair and recovery.

3. Answer: C. Roy

Remember the word “theoROYtical” for Callista Roy. Nursing is a theoretical body of knowledge that prescribes analysis and action to care for an ill person. Roy introduced the Adaptation Model and viewed a person as a biopsychosocial being. She believed that by adaptation, a person can maintain homeostasis.

4. Answer: B. Orem

In self care deficit theory, Nursing is defined as a helping or assistive profession to person who are wholly or partly dependent or when people who are to give care to them are no longer available. Self care are the activities that a person do for himself to maintain health, life and well being.

5. Answer: A. Neuman

Neuman divided stressors as either intra, inter and extra personal in nature. She said that NURSING is concerned with eliminating these stressors to obtain a maximum level of wellness. The nurse helps the client through PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY prevention modes.

6. Answer: A. Henderson

Remember this definition and associate it with Virginia Henderson. Henderson also describes the NATURE OF NURSING theory. She identified 14 basic needs of the client. She describes nursing roles as:

  • Substitutive: Doing everything for the client;
  • Supplementary: Helping the client; and
  • Complementary: Working with the client.

Breathing normally, eliminating waste, eating and drinking adequately, worship and play are some of the basic needs according to her.

7. Answer: C. Leininger

There are many theorists that describes nursing as CARE. The most popular was JEAN WATSON’S Human Caring Model. But this question pertains to Leininger’s definition of caring. CUD I LIE IN GER? [ Could I Lie In There ] Is the Mnemonics I am using not to get confused. C stands for CENTRAL , U stands for UNIFYING, D stands for DOMINANT DOMAIN.

8. Answer: D. Swanson

Caring according to Swanson involves 5 processes. Knowing means understanding the client. Being with emphasizes the Physical presence of the nurse for the patient. Doing for means doing things for the patient when he is incapable of doing it for himself. Enabling means helping client transcend maturational and developmental stressors in life while Maintaining belief is the ability of the Nurse to inculcate meaning to these events.

9. Answer:  B. Watson

The deepest and spiritual definition of caring came from Jean Watson. For her, caring expands the limits of openness and allows access to higher human spirit.

10. Answer: A. Benner

11. Answer: B. It serves specific interest of a group

A profession should serve the whole community and not just a specific interest of a group. All other choices are correct.

12. Answer: A. Concerned with quantity

A professional is concerned with quality and not quantity. In nursing, We have methods of quality assurance and control to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care. Nurses, are never concerned with quantity of care provided.

13. Answer: C. Caring

Caring and caring alone, is the most unique quality of the Nursing Profession. It is the one the delineate nursing from other professions.

14. Answer: B. Personality

Personality are qualities that make us different from each other. These are impressions that we made, or the footprints that we leave behind. This is the result of the integration of one’s talents, behavior, appearance, mood, character, morals and impulses into one harmonious whole. Philosophy is the basic truth that fuel our soul and give our life a purpose, it shapes the facets of a person’s character. Charm is to attract other people to be a change agent. Character is our moral values and belief that guides our actions in life.

15. Answer: D. Character

Character is our moral values and belief that guides our actions in life.

16. Answer: D. Provide in service education programs. Use accurate nursing audit, formulate philosophy and vision of the institution

A refers to being a change agent. B is a role of a patient advocate. C is a case manager while D basically summarized functions of a nurse manager. If you haven’t read Lydia Venzon’s Book : NURSING MANAGEMENT TOWARDS QUALITY CARE, I suggest reading it in advance for your management subjects in the graduate school. Formulating philosophy and vision is in PLANNING. Nursing Audit is in CONTROLLING, In service education programs are included in DIRECTING. These are the processes of Nursing Management, I just forgot to add ORGANIZING which includes formulating an organizational structure and plans, Staffing and developing qualifications and job descriptions.

17. Answer: A. Determine client’s need

You can never provide nursing care if you don’t know what are the needs of the client. How can you provide an effective postural drainage if you do not know where is the bulk of the client’s secretion. Therefore, the best description of a care provider is the accurate and prompt determination of the client’s need to be able to render an appropriate nursing care.

18. Answer: B. Client advocate

As a client’s advocate, nurses are to protect the client’s rights and promotes what is best for the them. Knowing that morphine causes spasm of the Sphincter of Oddi and will lead to further increase in the client’s pain, the nurse should know that the the best treatment option for the client was not provided and intervene to provide the best possible care.

19. Answer: C. Interdependent

Interdependent functions are those that needs expertise and skills of multiple health professionals.

20. Answer: A. Total patient care

This is also known as case nursing. It is a method of nursing care wherein, one nurse is assigned to one patient for the delivery of total care. These are the method use by nursing students. Private duty nurses and those in critical or isolation units.

21. Answer: D. Total patient care

Total patient care works best if there are many nurses but few patients.

22. Answer: A. Functional nursing

Functional nursing is task oriented. One nurse is assigned on a particular task leading to task expertise and efficiency. The nurse will work fast because the procedures are repetitive leading to task mastery. This care is not recommended as this leads fragmented nursing care.

23. Answer: C. Primary nursing

Your keyword in Primary Nursing is the 24 hours. This does not necessarily mean the nurse is awake for 24 hours. The nurse can have secondary nurses that can take care of the the patient during shifts where the primary nurse is not around.

24. Answer: D. Nightingale

Hammurabi is a king of Babylon that introduced the “Lex Taliones” law or better be described as “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.” Alexander the Great was the son of King Philip II and is from Macedonia but he ruled and conquered Greece, Persia and Egypt. He is known to use a hammer to crush a dying soldier’s medulla giving a speedy death. Fabiola was a beautiful Roman matron who converted her house into a hospital.

25. Answer: A. Henderson

Refer to question # 6.

26. Answer: A. Levin

Myra Levin described the 4 Conservation principles which are concerned with the Unity and Integrity of an individual.

  • Energy: Output to facilitate meeting our needs.
  • Structural Integrity: Maintaining the integrity of our organs, tissues and systems to prevent harmful agents from entering one’s body.
  • Personal Integrity: These refers to one’s self-esteem, self worth, self concept, identity and personality.
  • Social Integrity: Reflects one’s societal roles to one’s society, community, family, friends and fellow individuals.

27. Answer: D. Neuman

Betty Neuman asserted that nursing is a unique profession and is concerned with all the variables affecting the individual’s response to stressors. These are INTRA or within ourselves, EXTRA or outside the individual, INTER means between two or more people.

She proposed the Health Care System Model which states that by the three levels of prevention — primary, secondary, tertiary — the nurse can help the client maintain stability against these stressors.

28. Answer: B. Johnson

According to Dorothy Johnson, each person is a behavioral system that is composed of seven (7) subsystems. Man adjusts or adapts to stressors by a using a learned pattern of response. Man uses his behavior to meet the demands of the environment, and is able to modify his behavior to support these demands.

29. Answer: C. Weidenbach

The Helping Art of Clinical Nursing was developed by Ernestine Wiedenbach. It defines nursing as the practice of identifying a patient’s need for help through the observation of presenting behavior and symptoms, exploration of the meaning of those symptoms, determination of the cause of discomfort, the determination of the patient’s ability to resolve the patient’s discomfort, or determining if the patient has a need of help from the nurse or another health care professional.

30. Answer: A. Erickson, Tomlin, Swain

Modeling and Role Modeling theory was developed by Helen C. Erickson, Evelyn M. Tomlin, and Mary Ann P. Swain. It enables nurses to care for and nurture each client with an awareness of and respect for the individual’s uniqueness which exemplifies theory-based clinical practice that focuses on the clients’ needs.

31. Answer: D. Boykin,Schoenhofer

This theory was called GRAND THEORY because Boykin and Schoenhofer thinks that “all men are caring” and that nursing is a response to this unique call. According to them, caring is “a moral imperative” meaning all people will tend to help a man even if he is not trained to do so.

32.  Answer: A. Travelbee

Travelbee’s theory was referred to as Interpersonal Theory because she postulated that nursing “is to assist the individual and all people that affects this individual to cope with illness, recover and find meaning to this experience.” For her, nursing is a human to human relationship that is formed during illness.

33. Answer: C. Kohlberg

Kohlber states that relationships are based on mutual trust. He postulated the levels of morality development. At the first stage called the premoral or preconventional. A child do things and label them as bad or good depending on the punishment or reward they get.

34. Answer: D. Peters

Peters believes that morality has 3 components:

  • Emotions or how one feels;
  • Judgement or how one reasons;
  • Behavior or how one actuates his emotions and judgement.

35. Answer: C. Identification

A child, according to Freud adopts parental standards, traits, habits and norms through identication. A good example is the corned beef commercial ” WALK LIKE A MAN, TALK LIKE A MAN ” Where the child identifies with his father by wearing the same clothes and doing the same thing.

36. Answer: D. Schulman and Mekler

According to Schulman and Mekler, there are 2 components that makes an action MORAL : The intention should be good and the Act must be just. A good example is ROBIN HOOD, His intention is GOOD but the act is UNJUST, which makes his action IMMORAL.

37. Answer: B. Westerhoff

There are only 2 theorist of FAITH that might be asked in the board examinations. Fowler and Westerhoff. What differs them is that, FAITH of fowler is defined abstractly, Fowler defines faith as a FORCE that gives a meaning to a person’s life while Westerhoff defines faith as a behavior that continuously develops through time.

38. Answer: C. Fowler

Refer to # 37

39. Answer: B. Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing

This is the first School of Nursing in the Philippines which started in 1906 and produced the three graduate nurses in 1909. Now, the School of Nursing was transferred at Central Philippine University.

40. Answer: C. Philippine General Hospital

In 1917, Tupas was named the first Filipino chief nurse and superintendent of the Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing. She also headed the committee that prepared the bill systematizing Philippine nursing education passed in 1919. In 1959, through the initiative of the Civic Assembly of Women of the Philippines, she received the Presidential medal of merit.

41. Answer: A. Elizabeth

Saint Elizabeth of Hungary was a daughter of a King and is the patron saint of nurses. She build hospitals and feed hungry people everyday using the kingdom’s money. She is a princess, but devoted her life in feeding the hungry and serving the sick.

42. Answer: A. Clara Louise Maass

Clara Louise Maass sacrificed her life in research of YELLOW FEVER. People during her time do not believe that yellow fever was brought by mosquitoes. To prove that they are wrong, She allowed herself to be bitten by the vector and after days, She died.

43. Answer: C. Moses

More than 1000 years before Christ, Moses was recognized as the “Father of Sanitation.” He wrote rules for sanitation. He stated that all people preparing and serving public food must be neat and clean. Moses also required that serving dishes and cooking utensils be washed between customers and public restaurants.

44. Answer: C. India

45. Answer: A. Chinese

Chinese believes that male newborns are demon magnets. To fool those demons, they put female clothes to their male newborn.

46. Answer: B. Intuitive period

Egyptians believe that a sick person is someone with an evil force or demon that is inside their heads. To release these evil spirits, They would tend to drill holes on the patient’s skull and it is called TREPHINING.

47. Answer: A. Apprentice period

What delineates apprentice period among others is that, it ENDED when formal schools were established. During the apprentice period, There is no formal educational institution for nurses. Most of them receive training inside the convent or church. Some of them are trained just for the purpose of nursing the wounded soldiers. But almost all of them are influenced by the christian faith to serve and nurse the sick. When Fliedner build the first formal school for nurses, It marked the end of the APPRENTICESHIP period.

48. Answer: A. Apprentice period

Apprentice period is marked by the emergence of religious orders the are devoted to religious life and the practice of nursing.

49. Answer: C. St. Clare

The poor St. Clare is the second order of St. Francis of Assisi. The first order was founded by St. Francis himself. St. Catherine of Sienna was the first lady with the lamp. St. Anne is the mother of Mary. St. Elizabeth is the patron saint of Nursing.

50. Answer: B. Dark period

Protestantism emerged with Martin Luther questions the Pope and Christianity. This started the Dark period of nursing when the christian faith was smeared by controversies. These leads to closure of some hospital and schools run by the church. Nursing became the work of prostitutes, slaves, mother and least desirable of women.

51. Answer: B. Like some other men

According to ROY, Man as a social being is like some other man. As a spiritual being and Biologic being, Man are all alike. As a psychologic being, No man thinks alike. This basically summarized her BIOPSYHOSOCIAL theory which is included in our licensure exam coverage.

52. Answer: A. Roy

OPEN system theory is ROY. As an open system, man continuously allows input from the environment. Example is when you tell me Im good looking, I will be happy the entire day, Because I am an open system and continuously interact and transact with my environment. A close system is best exemplified by a CANDLE. When you cover the candle with a glass, it will die because it will eventually use all the oxygen it needs inside the glass for combustion. A closed system do not allow inputs and output in its environment.

53. Answer: B. A sole island in vast ocean

54. Answer: B. Rogers

The holistic theory by Martha Rogers states that MAN is greater than the sum of all its parts and that his dignity and worth will not be lessen even if one of this part is missing. A good example is ANNE BOLEYN, The mother of Queen Elizabeth and the wife of King Henry VIII. She was beheaded because Henry wants to marry another wife and that his divorce was not approved by the pope. Outraged, He insisted on the separation of the Church and State and divorce Anne himself by making everyone believe that Anne is having an affair to another man. Anne was beheaded while her lips is still saying a prayer. Even without her head, People still gave respect to her diseased body and a separate head. She was still remembered as Anne Boleyn, Mother of Elizabeth who lead England to their GOLDEN AGE.

55. Answer: B. Rogers

According to Martha Rogers, Man is composed of 2 systems : SUB which includes cells, tissues, organs and system and SUPRA which includes our family, community and society. She stated that when any of these systems are affected, it will affect the entire individual.

56. Answer: B. Needs should be followed exactly in accordance with their hierarchy

Needs can be deferred. I can urinate later as not to miss the part of the movie’s climax. I can save my money that are supposedly for my lunch to watch my idols in concert. The physiologic needs can be meet later for some other needs and need not be strictly followed according to their hierarchy.

57. Answer: D. Priorities are alterable

58. Answer: C. Follows the decision of the majority, uphold justice and truth

A,B and D are all qualities of a self actualized person. A self actualized person do not follow the decision of majority but is self directed and can make decisions contrary to a popular opinion.

59. Answer:  A. Makes decision contrary to public opinion

60. Answer: B. Self actualization

The peak of Maslow’s hierarchy is the essence of mental health.

61. Answer: D. Italy

Florence Nightingale was born in Florence, Italy, May 12, 1820. Studied in Germany and Practiced in England.

62. Answer: A. Born May 12, 1840

63. Answer:  C. Germany

64. Answer: D. Dunn

According to Dunn, High level wellness is the ability of an individual to maximize his full potential with the limitations imposed by his environment. According to him, An individual can be healthy or ill in both favorable and unfavorable environment.

65. Answer: A. Promotes advancement and professional growth among its members

66. Answer: B. Anastacia Giron Tupas

Anastasia Giron Tupas is the founder of PNA (formerly Filipino Nurses Association) and the Dean of Philippine Nursing. Founded on September 2, 1922 as Filipino Nurses Association (FNA) in a meeting of 150 nurses, the FNA was incorporated in 1924.

67.  Answer: C. Board resolution No. 1955 Promulgated by the BON

This is an old board resolution. The new Board resolution is No. 220 series of 2004 also known as the Nursing Code Of Ethics which states that “A nurse should be a member of an accredited professional organization which is the PNA.”

68. Answer: C. She does it regularly as an important responsibility

69. Answer: A. RA 7164

7164 is an old law. This is the 1991 Nursing Law which was repealed by the newer RA 9173.

70. Answer: B. Independent nurse practitioner

71. Answer: D. September 02, 1922

According to the official PNA website, they are founded September 02, 1922.

72. Answer: C. Rosario Montenegro

Anastacia Giron Tupas founded the FNA, the former name of the PNA but the first President was Rosario Montenegro.

73. Answer: B. Bernard

According to Bernard, Health is the ability to maintain and Internal Milieu and Illness is the failure to maintain the internal environment.

74. Answer: D. Roy

According to ROY, Health is a state and process of becoming a WHOLE AND INTEGRATED Person.

75. Answer: B. Negative feedback

The theory of Health as the ability to maintain homeostasis was postulated by Walter Cannon. According to him, There are certain FEEDBACK Mechanism that regulates our Homeostasis. A good example is that when we overuse our arm, it will produce pain. PAIN is a negative feedback that signals us that our arm needs a rest.

76. Answer: C. Rogers

Martha Rogers states that HEALTH is synonymous with WELLNESS and that HEALTH and WELLNESS is subjective depending on the definition of one’s culture.

77. Answer: D. King

Emogene King states that health is a state in the life cycle and Illness is any interference on this cycle. I enjoyed the Movie LION KING and like what Mufasa said that they are all part of the CIRCLE OF LIFE, or the Life cycle.

78. Answer: A. Orem

Orem defined health as the SOUNDNESS and WHOLENESS of developed human structure and of bodily and mental functioning.

79. Answer: C. Neuman

Neuman believe that man is composed of sub parts and when this sub parts are in harmony with the whole system, Wellness results. Please do not confuse this with the SUB and SUPRA systems of Martha rogers.

80. Answer: D. Johnson

Once you see the phrase BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM, answer Dorothy Johnson.

81. Answer: D. Leddy and Pepper

According to Leedy and Pepper, Wellness is subjective and depends on an individuals perception of balance, harmony and vitality. Leavell and Clark postulated the ecologic model of health and illness or the AGENT-HOST-ENVIRONMENT model. Paterson and Zderad developed the HUMANISTIC NURSING PRACTICE theory while Benner and Wrubel postulate the PRIMACY OF CARING MODEL.

82. Answer: C. Dunn

83. Answer: D. High level Wellness

84. Answer: C. Behavioral

Behavioral precursors includes smoking, alcoholism, high fat intake and other lifestyle choices. Environmental factors involved poor sanitation and over crowding. Heredity includes congenital and diseases acquired through the genes. There are no social precursors according to DUNN.

85. Answer: D. Environmental

86. Answer: A. Becker

According to Becker, The belief of an individual greatly affects his behavior. If a man believes that he is susceptible to an illness, He will alter his behavior in order to prevent its occurrence. For example, If a man thinks that diabetes is acquired through high intake of sugar and simple carbohydrates, then he will limit the intake of foods rich in these components.

87. Answer: D. Perceived curability of an illness

If a man think he is susceptible to a certain disease, thinks that the disease is serious and it is a threat to his life and functions, he will use preventive behaviors to avoid the occurrence of this threat.

88. Answer: A. Difficulty adhering to the lifestyle or B. Economic factors

Perceived barriers are those factors that affects the individual’s health preventive actions. Both A and B can affect the individual’s ability to prevent the occurrence of diseases. C and D are called Preventive Health Behaviors which enhances the individual’s preventive capabilities.

89. Answer: D. Eudaemonistic Model

Smith formulated 5 models of health. Clinical model simply states that when people experience sign and symptoms, they would think that they are unhealthy therefore, Health is the absence of clinical sign and symptoms of a disease. Role performance model states that when a person does his role and activities without deficits, he is healthy and the inability to perform usual roles means that the person is ill. Adaptive Model states that if a person adapts well with his environment, he is healthy and maladaptation equates illness. Eudaemonistic Model of health according to smith is the actualization of a person’s fullest potential. If a person functions optimally and develop self actualization, then, no doubt that person is healthy.

90. Answer: A. Clinical Model

Refer to question # 89.

91. Answer: C. Structural

Modifying variables in Becker’s health belief model includes DEMOGRAPHIC : Age, sex, race etc. SOCIOPSYCHOLOGIC : Social and Peer influence. STRUCTURAL : Knowledge about the disease and prior contact with it and CUES TO ACTION : Which are the sign and symptoms of the disease or advice from friends, mass media and others that forces or makes the individual seek help.

92. Answer: D. Cues to action

93. Answer: B. Sociopsychologic

94. Answer: A. Demographic

95. Answer: A. Reservoir

According to L&C’s Ecologic model, there are 3 factors that affect health and illness. These are the AGENT or the factor the leads to illness, either a bacteria or an event in life. HOST are persons that may or may not be affected by these agents. ENVIRONMENT are factors external to the host that may or may not predispose him to the AGENT.

96. Answer: C. Health Promotion Model

Pender developed the concept of HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL which postulated that an individual engages in health promotion activities to increase well being and attain self actualization. These includes exercise, immunization, healthy lifestyle, good food, self responsibility and all other factors that minimize if not totally eradicate risks and threats of health.

97. Answer: B. Health promotion

98. Answer: B. Disease

Diseases are alteration in body functions resulting in reduction of capabilities or shortening of lifespan.

99. Answer: A. Illness

Illness is something personal in perspective. Unlike disease, illnesses are in which a person feels a state of being unhealthy. An old person may think he is ill but in fact, he is not, due to diminishing functions and capabilities of his body.

100. Answer: B. Watson

This is Jean Watson’s definition of Nursing as caring.

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