Surgical intervention may be needed to diagnose or cure a specific disease process, correct a deformity, restore a functional process or reduce the level of dysfunction.
Nursing management of hemorrhoids depends on the type and severity of the hemorrhoid and on the patient’s overall condition. Treatment includes measures to ease pain, combat swelling and congestion, and regulation of the patient’s bowel habits. Patient care includes preoperative and postoperative support.
Subtotal gastrectomy or gastric resection is indicated for gastric hemorrhage/intractable ulcers, dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter, pyloric obstruction, perforation, cancer.
Joint replacements are indicated for irreversibly damaged joints with loss of function and unremitting pain, selected fractures, joint instability and congenital hip disorders.
Laminectomy is the excision of a vertebral posterior arch and is commonly performed for injury to the spinal column or to relieve pressure/pain in the presence of a herniated disc. The procedure may be done with or without fusion of vertebrae.