Colic is commonly described as a behavioral syndrome in neonates and infants that is characterized by excessive, paroxysmal crying.
Human hookworm disease is a common helminth infection that is predominantly caused by the nematode parasites Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale; organisms that play a lesser role include Ancylostoma ceylonicum, Ancylostoma braziliense, and Ancylostoma caninum.
Ascariasis predominates in areas of poor sanitation and is associated with malnutrition, iron-deficiency anemia, and impairments of growth and cognition.
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants.
A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance in the brain. It can cause changes in behavior, movements or feelings, and in levels of consciousness.
Strabismus is the inward deviation of the eyes noted before the patient reaches age 6 months. It is associated with maldevelopment of stereopsis, motion processing, and eye movements.
In pediatric gastroesophageal reflux, immaturity of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function is manifested by frequent transient lower esophageal relaxations (tLESRs), which result in the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the esophagus.
Enterobiasis (also called pinworm, seatworm, or threadworm infection) is a benign intestinal disease caused by the nematode Enterobius vermicularis. It is the most prevalent helminthic infection in the United States.
Iron deficiency anemia develops when body stores of iron drop too low to support normal red blood cell (RBC) production.
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the aspiration of stained amniotic fluid, which can occur before, during, or immediately after birth.