Hemorrhoids are varicosities in the superior or inferior hemorrhoidal venous plexus. Internal hemorrhoids results from the dilation and enlargement of the superior plexus while external hemorrhoids results from the enlargement and dilation of the inferior plexus. Hemorrhoids are considered to be caused by increased venous pressure in the hemorrhoidal plexus.
- First-degree hemorrhoids may itch because of poor anal hygiene.
- Second-degree hemorrhoids are usually painless and spontaneously return to the anal canal following defecation.
- Third-degree hemorrhoids cause constant discomfort and prolapse in response to any increase in intra-abdominal pressure. They must be manually reduced.
Nursing management of hemorrhoids depends on the type and severity of the hemorrhoid and on the patient’s overall condition. Treatment includes measures to ease pain, combat swelling and congestion, and regulation of the patient’s bowel habits. Patient care includes preoperative and postoperative support.
Impaired Tissue Integrity
May be related to
- Hemorrhoidal surgery and procedures
- Alteration in activity
- Changes in mobility
- Aging process
- Loss of elasticity of skin
Possibly evidenced by
- Disruption of skin tissue from incisional sites
- Destruction of skin layers
- Thrombosed hemorrhoids
- Internal prolapsed hemorrhoids
- Patient will have intact skin with no signs or symptoms of rectal prolapse or bleeding.
- Hemorrhoids will be reduced or removed.
- Patient will exhibit no evidence of thrombosed hemorrhoids or rectal bleeding.
- Patient will have normal CBC with no noted anemias.
- Patient will be able to accurately verbalize understanding of causes of hemorrhoids, methods of preventing the worsening of hemorrhoids, and comfort measures to employ.
- Swollen hemorrhoids will be reduced in size, with no pain evoked.
- Patient will be able to tolerate procedures to diagnose problem and to treat hemorrhoids without the presence of any complication.
|Assess patient for presence of hemorrhoids, discomfort or pain associated with hemorrhoids, diet, fluid intake, and presence of constipation.||Provides baseline information as to type of hemorrhoids (external or internal), degree of venous thrombosis, presence of complications, including bleeding, and risk factors that preclude patient to hemorrhoids to enable initiation of care plan appropriate for patient.|
|Administer topical medication as ordered.||Reduces swelling, pain, and/or itching in order to make patient more comfortable.|
|Provide “donut cushion” for patient to sit on if needed.||Hemorrhoids are exquisitely painful and patient may not be able to sit in chair and apply pressure to delicate tissues.|
Donut cushions can help remove pressure from the hemorrhoid; caution on the occurrence of pressure areas.
|Administer stool softeners as ordered.||Helps prevent straining and increases pressure that may cause clotted vessels to rupture or cause further hemorrhoids to develop. Helps relieve pain by avoiding passage of hard fecal material.|
|Assist with procedures for treatment of hemorrhoids.||Sclerotherapy may be used if problem is detected early, it involves injection of quinine urea hydrochloride or other agent into sclerosed vessels, with resultant swelling and dying of the vessel, with reabsorption within the body.|
Banding the hemorrhoid may also be performed, this involves the application of a rubber band around the base of each hemorrhoid, which ultimately results in the death and necrosis of the hemorrhoid.
Laser surgery may also be performed but symptomatic relief is not obtained immediately.
Hemorrhoidectomy is performed if the patient has internal hemorrhoids with prolapse, or if the patient has both internal and external hemorrhoids. It relieves symptoms immediately but can create scar tissues and other complications; should be done as a last resort.
|Instruct patient and/or family regarding causes of hemorrhoids, methods of avoiding hemorrhoids, and treatments that can be performed.||Hemorrhoids are caused by straining, heavy lifting, obesity, pregnancy, and any activity that distends rectal veins and causes them to prolapse.|
|Instruct patient and/or family regarding all procedures required.||Internal hemorrhoids are normally diagnosed by anoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy because digital rectal exam cannot adequately detect hemorrhoids. Barium enemas or colonoscopy may be required to ensure that intestinal masses are not presence as well.|
|Instruct patient and/or family in dietary management.||Increasing bulk, fiber, fluids, and eating fruits and vegetables can help by maintaining soft stools to avoid straining at bowel movements.|
|Instruct patient and/or family regarding the use of bulk producing agents, such as psyllium husk.||Bulk-forming laxatives help absorb water to increase moisture content in the stool, increases peristalsis, and helps promote soft bowel movements.|
|Instruct patient and/or family in comfort measures to use with the presence of hemorrhoids.||Use of rubber donuts remove pressure directly placed on the hemorrhoid. Warm sitz baths or suppositories containing anesthetic agents can help to alleviate pain temporarily.|
You may also like the following posts and care plans:
- Nursing Care Plan: The Ultimate Guide and Database – the ultimate database of nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions! Get the complete list!
- Nursing Diagnosis: The Complete Guide and List – archive of different nursing diagnoses with their definition, related factors, goals and nursing interventions with rationale.
Gastrointestinal Care Plans
Care plans covering the disorders of the gastrointestinal and digestive system:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans