Preoperative Phase

The scope of activities during the preoperative phase includes the establishment of the patient’s baseline assessment in the clinical setting or at home, carrying out preoperative interview and preparing the patient for the anesthetic to be given and the surgery.

Postoperative Phase

The postoperative phase of the surgical experience extends from the time the client is transferred to the recovery room or postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the moment he or she is transported back to the surgical unit, discharged from the hospital until the follow-up care.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism refers to the obstruction of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches by a thrombus that originates somewhere in the venous system or in the right side of the heart.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is classified as a metabolic bone disorder. It occurs when the creation of new bone doesn’t keep up with the removal of old bone. It also causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture.

Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax is one of the disorders of the chest and lower respiratory tract. It occurs when the parietal or visceral pleura is breached and the pleural space is exposed to positive atmospheric pressure.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

The ductus arteriosus is a fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. In patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), the lumen of the ductus remains open after birth.