Without providing fundamental care, nurses would not be providing a duty of care that the patient deserves. Test your ability with this 20-item exam about Fundamentals of Nursing covering the topics of Urinary Elimination, Fecal Elimination, Oxygenation, and Fluid and Electrolytes. Do good and soar high on your NCLEX exam!
People often say motivation doesn’t last. Well neither does bathing. That’s why we recommend it daily.
~ Zig Ziglar
Topics or concepts included in this exam are:
- Urinary Elimination
- Fecal Elimination
- Fluid and Electrolytes
To make the most out of this exam, follow the guidelines below:
- Read each question carefully and choose the best answer.
- You are given one minute per question. Spend your time wisely!
- Answers and rationales (if any) are given below. Be sure to read them.
- If you need more clarifications, please direct them to the comments section.
In Exam Mode: All questions are shown but the results, answers, and rationales (if any) will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz. You are given 1 minute per question.
Fundamentals of Nursing NCLEX Practice Quiz 6 (20 Items)
Practice Mode: This is an interactive version of the Text Mode. All questions are given in a single page and correct answers, rationales or explanations (if any) are immediately shown after you have selected an answer. No time limit for this exam.
Fundamentals of Nursing NCLEX Practice Quiz 6 (20 Items)
In Text Mode: All questions and answers are given for reading and answering at your own pace. You can also copy this exam and make a print out.
1. The nurse recognizes that urinary elimination changes may occur even in healthy older adults because of which of the following?
1. The bladder distends and its capacity increases
2. Older adults ignore the need to void
3. Urine becomes more concentrated
4. The amount of urine retained after voiding increases
2. During assessment of the client with urinary incontinence, the nurse is most likely to assess for which of the following? Select all that apply.
1. Perineal skin irritation
2. Fluid intake of less than 1,500 mL/d
3. History of antihistamine intake
4. Hx of UTI
5. A fecal impaction
3. Which action represents the appropriate nursing management of a client wearing a condom catheter?
1. Ensure that the tip of the penis fits snugly against the end of the condom
2. Check the penis for adequate circulation 30 min after applying
3. Change the condom every 8 hours
4. Tape the collecting tube to the lower abdomen.
4. The catheter slips into the vagina during a straight catheterization of a female client. The nurse does which action?
1. Leaves the catheter in place and gets a new sterile catheter
2. Leaves the catheter in place and asks another nurse to attempt the procedure
3. Removes the catheter and redirects it to the urinary meatus
4. Removes the catheter, wipes it with a sterile gauze, and redirects it to the urinary meatus
5. Which statement indicates a need for further teaching of a home care client with a long term indwelling catheter?
1. “I will keep the collecting bag below the level of the bladder at all times”
2. “Intake of cranberry juice may help decrease the risk of infection”
3. “Soaking in a warm tub bath may ease the irritation associated with the catheter”
4. “I should use clean tech. when emptying the collecting bag”
6. During shift report, the nurse learns that an older female client is unable to maintain continence after she senses the urge to void and becomes incontinent on the way to the bathroom. Which nursing diagnosis is most appropriate?
7. A female client has a urinary tract infection. Which teaching points by the nurse should be helpful to the client? Select all that apply.
1. Limit fluids to avoid the burning sensation on urination
2. Review symptoms of UTI with the client
3. Wipe the perineal area from back to front
4. Wear cotton underclothes
5. Take baths rather than showers
8. The nurse will need to assess the client’s performance of clean intermittent self catheterization (CISC) for a client with which urinary diversion?
1. Ileal conduit
2. Kock pouch
9. Which focus is the nurse most likely to teach for a client with a flaccid bladder?
1. Habit training: attempt voiding at specific time periods
2. Bladder training: delay voiding according to a pre-schedule timetable
3. Crede’s maneuver: apply gentle manual pressure to the lower abdomen
4. Kegel exercises: contract the pelvic muscles
10. Which of the following behaviors indicates that the client on a bladder training program has met the expected outcomes? Select all that apply.
1. Voids each time there is an urge
2. Practices slow, deep breathing until the urge decreases
3. Uses adult diapers, for “just in case”
4. Drinks citrus juices and carbonated beverages
5. Performs pelvic muscle exercises
11. A nurse has identified that the patient has overflow incontinence. What is a major factor that contributes to this clinical manifestation?
2. Mobility deficits
3. Prostate enlargement
4. Urinary tract infection
12. A nurse must measure the intake and output (I&O) for a patient who has a urinary retention catheter. Which equipment is most appropriate to use to accurately measure urine output from a urinary retention catheter?
3. Large syringe
4. Urine collection bag
13. A patient’s urine is cloudy, is amber, and has an unpleasant odor. What problem may this information indicate that requires the nurse to make a focused assessment?
1. Urinary retention
2. Urinary tract infection
3. Ketone bodies in the urine
4. High urinary calcium level
14. A nurse is caring for a debilitated female patient with nocturia. Which nursing intervention is the priority when planning to meet this patient’s needs?
1. Encouraging the use of bladder training exercises
2. Providing assistance with toileting every four hours
3. Positioning a bedside commode near the bed
4. Teaching the avoidance of fluid after 5 PM
15. A practitioner uses a urine specimen for culture and sensitivity via a straight catheter for a patient. What should the nurse do when collecting this urine specimen?
1. Use a sterile specimen container.
2. Collect urine from the catheter port.
3. Inflate the balloon with 10 mL of sterile water.
4. Have the patient void before collecting the specimen.
16. A nurse in a provider’s office is assessing a client who reports losing control of urine when ever she coughs, laughs, or sneezes. The client relates a history of three vaginal births, but no serious accidents or illnesses. Which of the following interventions are appropriate for helping to control or eliminate the clients incontinence? Select all that apply.
1. Limit total daily fluid intake
2. Decrease or avoid caffeine
3. Increase the intake of calcium supplements
4. Avoid the intake of alcohol
5. Use Crede maneuver
17. A client who has an indwelling catheter reports I need to urinate. Which of the following interventions should the nurse perform?
1. Check to see whether the catheter is patent
2. Reassure the client that it is not possible for her to urinate
3. Re-catheterize the bladder with a larger gauge catheter
4. Collect a urine specimen for analysis
18. A provider prescribes a 24 hour urine collection for a client. Which of the following actions should the nurse take?
1. Discard the first voiding
2. Keep all voidings in a container at room temperature
3. Ask the client to urinate and pour the urine into a specimen container
4. Ask the client to urinate into the toilet, stop midstream, and finish urinating into the specimen container
19. A nurse is preparing to initiate a bladder training program for a client who has a voiding disorder. Which of the following actions should the nurse take? Select all that apply.
1. Establish a schedule of voiding prior to meal times
2. Have the client record voiding times
3. Gradually increase the voiding intervals
4. Reminded client to hold urine until next scheduled voiding time
5. Provide a sterile container for voiding
20. A nurse educator on a medical unit is reviewing factors that increase the risk of urinary tract infections with a group of assistive personnel. Which of the following should be included in the review? Select all that apply.
1. Having sexual intercourse on a frequent basis
2. Lowering of testosterone levels
3. Wiping from front to back
4. The location of the vagina in relation to the anus
5. Undergoing frequent catheterization
Answers and Rationale
1. Answer: 4. The amount of urine retained after voiding increases
The capacity of the bladder may decrease with age but the muscle is weaker and can cause urine to be retained (Option 4). Older adults don’t ignore the urge to void and may have difficulty getting to the toilet in time (Option 2). The kidney becomes less able to concentrate urine with age (Option3).
2. Answer: 1, 2, 4, and 5
The perineum may become irritated by the frequent contact with urine (Opt1). Normal fluid intake is at least 1,500 mL/d and clients often decrease their intake to try to minimize urine leakage (Opt2). UTIs can contribute to incontinence (Opt4). A fecal impaction can compress the urethra, which results in sm. amts of urine leakage (Opt5). Antihistamines can cause urinary retention rather than urinary incontinence (Opt3).
3. Answer: 2. Check the penis for adequate circulation 30 min after applying
The penis and condom should be checked 1/2 hour after application to ensure that it’s not too tight. A 1 in. space should be left btw the penis and the end of the condom (opt1). The condom is changed every 24h (opt3) and the tubing is taped to the leg or attached to a leg bag. An indwelling catheter is taped to the lower abdomen or upper thigh (opt4).
4. Answer: 1. Leaves the catheter in place and gets a new sterile catheter
The catheter in the vagina is contaminated and can’t be reused.If left in place, it may help avoid mistaking the vaginal opening for the urinary meatus. A single failure to catheterize the meatus doesn’t indicate that another nurse is needed although sometimes a second nurse can assist in visualization of the meatus (opt2).
5. Answer: 3. “Soaking in a warm tub bath may ease the irritation associated with the catheter”
Soaking in a bathtub can increase the risk of exposure to bacteria. The bag should be below the level of the bladder to promote proper drainage (opt1). Intake of cranberry juice creates an environment nonconducive to infection (opt2). Clean technique is appropriate for touching the exterior portions of the system (opt4).
6. Answer: 4. urge urinary incontinence
The key phrase is “the urge to void” option one occurs when the client coughs, sneezes, or jars the body, resulting in accidental loss of urine. Option two occurs with involuntary loss of urine at somewhat predictable intervals when a specific bladder volume is reached. Option three is involuntary loss of urine related to impaired function.
7. Answer: 2, 4
Option two validates the diagnosis. Cotton underwear promotes appropriate exposure to air, resulting in decreased bacterial growth (opt4). Increased fluids decrease concentration and irritation (opt1). The client should wipe the perineal area from front to back to prevent spread of bacteria from the rectal area to the urethra (opt3). Showers reduce exposure of area to bacteria (opt5).
8. Answer: 2. Kock pouch
The ileal conduit and vesicostomy (opt1,4) are in continent urinary diversions, and clients are required to use an external ostomy appliance to contain the urine. Clients with a neobladder can control their voiding (opt3).
9. Answer: 3. Crede’s maneuver: apply gentle manual pressure to the lower abdomen
Because the bladder muscles will not contract to increase the intra-bladder pressure to promote urination, the process is initiated manually. Options one, two, and four: to promote continence bladder contractions are required for habit training, bladder training, and increasing the tone of the pelvic muscles.
10. Answer: 2, 5
It is important for the client to inhibit the urge to void sensation when a premature urge is experienced. Some clients may need diapers; this is not the best indicator of a successful program (opt3). Citrus juices may irritate the bladder (opt4). Carbonated beverages increase diuresis and the risk of incontinence (opt4).
11. Answer: 3. Prostate enlargement
An enlarged prostate compresses the urethra and interferes with the outflow of urine, resulting in urinary retention. With urinary retention, the pressure within the bladder builds until the external urethral sphincter temporarily opens to allow a small volume (25-60mL) of urine to escape (overflow incontinence). Coughing, which raises the intro abdominal pressure, is related to stress incontinence, not overflow incontinence (opt1). Mobility deficits, such as spinal cord injuries, are related to reflex incontinence, not overflow incontinence (opt2). Urinary tract infections are related to urge incontinence, not overflow incontinence (opt4).
12. Answer: 2. Graduate
A graduate is a collection container with volume markings usually at 25 mL increments that promote accurate measurements of urine volume. Although urinals have volume markings on the side, usually they occur in 100 mL increments that do not promote accurate measurements (opt1). Option 3 is impractical. A large syringe is used to obtain a sterile specimen from a retention catheter (Foley catheter). A urine collection bag is flexible and balloons outward as urine collects. In addition, the volume markings are at 100 mL increments that do not promote accurate measurements (opt4).
13. Answer: 2. Urinary tract infection
The urine appears concentrated (amber)and cloudy because of the presence of bacteria, white blood cells, and red blood cells. The unpleasant odor is caused by pus in the urine (pyuria). These clinical manifestations do not reflect urinary retention. Urinary retention is evidenced by supra pubic distention and lack of voiding or small, frequent voiding (overflow incontinence) (opt1). These clinical manifestations do not reflect Ketone bodies in the urine. A reagent strip dipped in urine will measure the presence of Ketone bodies (opt3). These clinical manifestations do not reflect excessive calcium in the urine. Urine calcium levels are measured by assessing a 24 hour urine specimen (opt4).
14. Answer: 3. Positioning a bedside commode near the bed
The use of a commode requires less energy than using a bedpan and is safer than walking to the bathroom. Sitting on the commode uses gravity to empty the bladder fully and thus prevent urinary stasis. Although option 1 should be done, it is not the priority. Option 2 may be too often or not often enough for the patient. Care should be individualized for the patient. Fluids may be decreased during the last two hours before bedtime, but they should not be avoided completely after 5 PM (opt4). Some fluid intake is necessary for adequate renal perfusion.
15. Answer: 1. Use a sterile specimen container.
A culture attempts to identify the microorganisms present in the urine, and a sensitivity study identifies the antibiotics that are effective against the isolated micro organisms. A sterile specimen container is used to prevent contamination of the specimen by micro organisms outside the body (exogenous). The urine from straight catheter flows directly into the specimen container. Collecting a urine specimen from a catheter port is necessary when the patient has a urinary retention catheter (opt2). A straight catheter has a single lumen for draining urine from the bladder. A straight catheter does not remain in the bladder and therefore does not have a 2nd lumen for water to be inserted into a balloon (opt3). This may result in no urine left in the bladder for the straight catheter to collect. A minimum of 3 mL of urine is necessary for a specimen for urine culture and sensitivity (opt4).
16. Answer: 2 and 4
Caffeine and alcohol are bladder irritants and can worsen stress incontinence. Alcohol is a bladder irritant and can worsen stress incontinence. Because stress incontinence results from weak pelvic muscles and other structures, limiting fluid will not resolve the problem (opt1). Calcium has no effect on stress incontinence (opt3). The Crede maneuver helps manage reflex incontinence, not stress incontinence (opt5).
17. Answer: 1. Check to see whether the catheter is patent
A clogged or kinked catheter causes the bladder to fill and stimulates the need to urinate. Reassuring the client that is not possible to urinate is a non-therapeutic response because it diminishes the client’s concern (opt2). There are less invasive approaches the nurse can take before replacing the catheter (opt3). Although it may become necessary to collect a urine specimen, there is a simpler approach the nurse can take to assess and possibly resolve the client’s problem (opt4).
18. Answer: 1. Discard the first voiding
The nurse should discard the first voiding of the 24 hour urine specimen, and note the time. The nurse should collect all voidings after that and keep them in a refrigerated container (opt2). For a urinalysis, the nurse should ask the client to urinate and pour the urine into a specimen container (opt3). For a culture, the nurse should ask the client to urinate first into the toilet, then stop midstream, and finish urinating in the specimen container (opt4).
19. Answer: 2, 3, and 4
Ask the client to keep track of voiding times is an appropriate nursing action. Gradually increasing the voiding interval is an appropriate nursing action. The client should be reminded to hold urine until the next scheduled voiding time. Bladder training involves voiding at scheduled in frequent intervals and gradually increasing these intervals to four hours. Mealtimes are not regular, and the intervals may be longer than every four hours (opt1). A sterile container is not used in a bladder training program (opt5).
20. Answer: 1, 4, and 5
Having sexual intercourse on a frequent basis is a factor that increases the risk of UTI in both males and females. The close proximity of the female urethra to the anus is a factor that increases the risk of UTIs. Undergoing frequent catheterization and the use of indwelling catheters are risk factors for UTIs. The decrease in estrogen levels during menopause increases a woman’s susceptibility to UTIs (opt2). Wiping from front to back decreases a woman’s risk of UTIs (opt3).
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