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Nursing Research NCLEX Practice Quiz #1 (20 Questions)
What should be included in a “scholarly literature”? Select all that apply.
- A. Primary and secondary sources.
- B. Conceptual and theoretical literature from primary sources only.
- C. Published and unpublished reports of research.
- D. Research reports reported in primary sources only.
- E. Sources relevant to the research questions.
Correct Answers: A, C, & E
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing the researcher to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research.
- Option A: Primary sources provide a first-hand account of an event or time period and are considered to be authoritative. They represent original thinking, reports on discoveries or events, or they can share new information. Often these sources are created at the time the events occurred but they can also include sources that are created later. They are usually the first formal appearance of original research. Secondary sources involve analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of primary sources. They often attempt to describe or explain primary sources.
- Option B: Secondary sources are good for gaining a full overview of the topic and understanding how other researchers have approached it. They often synthesize a large number of primary sources that would be difficult and time-consuming to gather alone.
- Option C: Secondary data is usually gathered from the published (printed) sources. A few major sources of published information are published articles of local bodies, and central and state governments; statistical synopses, census records, and other reports issued by the different departments of the government; magazines, journals, and periodicals, etc. Statistical data can be obtained from several unpublished references. Some of the major unpublished sources from which secondary data can be gathered are research works conducted by teachers, professors, and professionals or statistics maintained by different departments and agencies of the central and the state government, undertakings, corporations, etc.
- Option D: Most research uses both primary and secondary sources. They complement each other to help build a convincing argument. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but secondary sources show how the work relates to existing research.
- Option E: If the researcher is writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, he should search for literature related to the research problem and questions.
Reviews of the literature are conducted for PURPOSES OF RESEARCH as well as for the CONSUMER OF RESEARCH. How are these reviews similar? Select all that apply.
- A. Amount of literature required to be reviewed.
- B. Degree of critical reading required.
- C. Importance of conceptual literature.
- D. Purpose of the review.
- E. Knowledge of the research findings
Correct Answers: B, C
The purpose of a literature review is to gain an understanding of the existing research and debates relevant to a particular topic or area of study, and to present that knowledge in the form of a written report.
- Option A: A paper that has 10 pages of content (the body of the paper) needs at least 10 sources in its literature review. A thesis of 100 pages (in the body) includes at least 100 sources.
- Option B: A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.
- Option C: Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources the researcher has explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to the readers how the research fits within a larger field of study.
- Option D: A literature review establishes familiarity with and understanding of current research in a particular field before carrying out a new investigation. Conducting a literature review should enable the researcher to find out what research has already been done and identify what is unknown within the topic.
- Option E: Being aware is in part a matter of being able to distinguish what the researcher does know based on the information provided by research findings from what he does not know. It is also a matter of having some awareness about what he can and cannot reasonably know as he encounters research findings.
What are the characteristics of the literature review required for a quantitative research study? Select all that apply.
- A. The review is exhaustive and must include all studies conducted in the area.
- B. Doctoral dissertations and masters’ theses are excellent sources of information.
- C. Computer-accessed materials are acceptable.
- D. Primary sources are not as important as secondary sources.
- E. Objective self-review of findings.
Correct Answers: B, C
Literature reviews provide important background information and details about a specific research topic. An effective literature review also provides a space to elaborate on future work to be done on a topic and allows an author to define where their work fits into a larger context.
- Option A: An effective literature review details important research trends and also examines strengths and weaknesses of both specific studies and larger research contexts.
- Option B: It is challenging to achieve a successful review on all these fronts. A solution can involve a set of complementary coauthors: some people are excellent at mapping what has been achieved, some others are very good at identifying dark clouds on the horizon, and some have instead a knack at predicting where solutions are going to come from.
- Option C: Given the progressive acceleration in the publication of scientific papers, today’s reviews of the literature need awareness not just of the overall direction and achievements of a field of inquiry, but also of the latest studies, so as not to become out-of-date before they have been published.
- Option D: Most research uses both primary and secondary sources. They complement each other to help the researcher build a convincing argument. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but secondary sources show how the work relates to existing research.
- Option E: In general, a review of the literature should neither be a public relations brochure nor an exercise in competitive self-denial. If a reviewer is up to the job of producing a well-organized and methodical review, which flows well and provides a service to the readership, then it should be possible to be objective in reviewing one’s own relevant findings.
Which of the following is an example of a primary source in a research study?
- A. A published commentary on the findings of another study.
- B. A doctoral dissertation that critiques all research in the area of attention deficit disorder.
- C. A textbook of medical-surgical nursing.
- D. A journal article about a study that used large, previously unpublished databases generated by the United States census.
Correct Answer: D. A journal article about a study that used large, previously unpublished databases generated by the United States census
This is a report of an original study, so it is the primary source of the study. Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. A primary source gives direct access to the subject of the research.
- Option A: Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. Examples include journal articles, reviews, and academic books. A secondary source describes, interprets, or synthesizes primary sources.
- Option B: When citing a secondary source, it’s usually not to analyze it directly. Instead, test its arguments against new evidence or use its ideas to help formulate a new one.
- Option C: A secondary source is anything that describes, interprets, evaluates, or analyzes information from primary sources. Common examples include encyclopedias and textbooks that summarize information and ideas.
What is the best source to use when conducting a level I systematic meta-analysis of the literature?
- A. An electronic database
- B. Doctoral dissertations
- C. The Cochrane Statistical Methods
- D. An electronic database and Doctoral dissertations
Correct Answer: C. The Cochrane Statistical Methods
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are situated at the top of what is known as the “Evidence Pyramid”. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are considered to be the highest-quality evidence on a research topic because their study design reduces bias and produces more reliable findings. The Statistical Methods Group (SMG) (Cochrane Methods Statistics) is a forum where all statistical issues related to the work of Cochrane are discussed.
- Option A: A systematic review is a high-level overview of primary research on a particular research question that systematically identifies, selects, evaluates, and synthesizes all high-quality research evidence relevant to that question in order to answer it. In other words, it provides an exhaustive summary of scholarly literature related to a particular research topic or question.
- Option B: A systematic review is often written by a panel of experts after reviewing all the information from both published and unpublished studies. The comprehensive nature of a systematic review distinguishes it from traditional literature reviews which typically examine a much smaller set of research evidence and present it from a single author’s perspective.
- Option D: Not all systematic reviews include meta-analysis, but all meta-analyses are found in systematic reviews. Simply put, a systematic review refers to the entire process of selecting, evaluating, and synthesizing all available evidence, while the term meta-analysis refers to the statistical approach to combining the data derived from a systematic review.
What is a characteristic of an audio recording of an unpublished research study reported at a professional conference?
- A. Databased literature
- B. Secondary Sources
- C. Are more difficult to analyze than written reports.
- D. Are not useful because they are not published.
Correct Answer: A. Databased literature
Audio and video recordings of research presentations are examples of data based literature. As the name suggests, data-based literature is based on empirical information collected by the researcher. Non-data-based writings, on the other hand, ‘reflect the writer’s experiences or opinions and can range from the highly theoretical to popular testimonials’ (Merriam 1988: 61).
- Option B: Secondary sources were created by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions you’re researching. For a historical research project, secondary sources are generally scholarly books and articles. A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources.
- Option C: As the name suggests, an annotated bibliography contains a list of relevant studies relating to the research question or issue. These may range from brief research reports to books. Each entry contains a summary or abstract of the particular work.
- Option D: A literature review differs from an annotated bibliography in that the researcher extracts and synthesizes the main points, issues, findings, and research methods that emerge from a critical review of the readings. Merriam (1988) suggests that, in carrying out a literature review, it is a good idea to differentiate between data-based research and non-data-based writings.
What is the first step in the qualitative research process?
- A. Data analysis
- B. Sample
- C. Review of literature
- D. Study design
Correct Answer: C. Review of literature
Review of literature is the 1st step in the qualitative research process. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing the researcher to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research.
- Option A: Data analysis is the sixth step in the qualitative research process. Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data. An essential component of ensuring data integrity is the accurate and appropriate analysis of research findings.
- Option B: Sampling is the third step in the qualitative research process. Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed, but it may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling.
- Option D: The study design is the second step in the qualitative research process. Study design is a process wherein the trial methodology and statistical analysis are organized to ensure that the null hypothesis is either accepted or rejected and the conclusions arrived at reflecting the truth.
Which mode of clinical application for qualitative research is considered to be the sharing of qualitative findings with the patient?
- A. Insight or empathy
- B. Anticipatory guidance
- C. Assessment of status or progress
- D. Coaching
Correct Answer: B. Anticipatory guidance
Anticipatory guidance is the sharing of qualitative findings with the patient. Anticipatory guidance, specific to the age of the patient, includes information about the benefits of healthy lifestyles and practices that promote injury and disease prevention. Common examples of anticipatory guidance include reminding parents to have their children use bicycle helmets and to use sunscreen. Other options are not considered to be the sharing of qualitative findings with the patient.
- Option A: There is no consensus in the general biomedical/clinical literature about disclosing research results to study participants. Fernandez and colleagues have advocated for offering a summary of research results to individual participants and including information in the consent form on the harms and benefits of receiving the results with options to decline all or any of the results (which they advocate for all human subjects research).
- Option C: In contrast, there is a body of opinion that cautions against disclosures as a routine practice, even aggregated results, because of postulated potential harm to research participants. Those with this view believe the decision as to whether to provide research results should be based on various considerations, such as balancing harms and risks to the individual and the clinical significance of the findings.
- Option D: Coaching was defined as a collaborative solution-focused result-orientated systematic process used with normal non-clinical populations in which the coach facilitates the self-directed learning, personal growth, and goal attainment of the coach.
Which research process steps may be noted in an article’s abstract? Select all that apply.
- A. Identifying the phenomenon
- B. Research question study purpose
- C. Literature review
- D. Design
- E. Sample
- F. Legal-ethical issues
- G. Data-collection procedure
Correct Answers: A, B, D
Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. This process is used in all research and evaluation projects, regardless of the research method (scientific method of inquiry, evaluation research, or action research).
- Option A: The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a recreation trend nationally.
- Option B: Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed.
- Option C: This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area. The review of literature also educates the researcher about what studies have been conducted in the past, how these studies were conducted, and the conclusions in the problem area.
- Option D: The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study, specifying who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program.
- Option E: Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations. For example, if a researcher wants to examine a specific group of people in the community, the study could examine a specific age group, males or females, people living in a specific geographic area, or a specific ethnic group.
- Option F: The main role of human participants in research is to serve as sources of data. Researchers have a duty to ‘protect the life, health, dignity, integrity, right to self-determination, privacy and confidentiality of personal information of research subjects’.
- Option G: Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Every study includes the collection of some type of data—whether it is from the literature or from subjects—to answer the research question.
What does a level-of-evidence model use to evaluate the strength of a research study and its findings? Select all that apply.
- A. Creativity
- B. Quality
- C. Quantity
- D. Consistency
- E. Efficiency
Correct Answer: B, C, D
Levels of evidence (sometimes called hierarchy of evidence) are assigned to studies based on the methodological quality of their design, validity, and applicability to patient care. These decisions give the “grade (or strength) of recommendation.”
- Option A: Strength-of-evidence systems incorporate not only study design but also many other facets of the evidence, including study conduct, presence or absence of bias, quantity of evidence, directness (or indirectness) of evidence, consistency of evidence, and precision of estimates.
- Option B: For systematic reviews, the quality of evidence reflects the extent of confidence that an estimate of effect is correct. Study design is important in determining the quality of evidence As with early systems of grading the quality of evidence, 4 GRADE’s approach begins with the study design.
- Option C: If one considers other factors that influence the use of evidence, the quantity of accessible evidence and initiatives ensuring a wider understanding of it must be equally important. In consequence, improving the quality of research evidence alone will not necessarily lead to its greater use.
- Option D: Confidence in the argument for or against a candidate cause is increased when many types of evidence consistently support or weaken it. A candidate cause is strongly supported if all available types of evidence are consistently supportive. It is greatly weakened if all available types of evidence are consistently weakening.
- Option E: Although no one system for reporting results and grading the related strength of evidence is likely to suit all users, documentation and consistent reporting of the most important summary information about a body of literature will make reviews more useful to a broader range of potential audiences.
What are the critiquing criteria used to judge the worth of a research study? Select all that apply.
- A. Measures
- B. Objectives
- C. Standards
- D. Effectiveness
- E. Evaluation guides
- F. Questions
Correct Answers: A, C, E, F
Critiquing is a systematic process for evaluating research studies and the results reported. A research critique is an analysis of a research undertaking that focuses on its strengths and limitations.
- Option A: Physiological measurement: Is a rationale given for why a particular instrument or method was selected? If so, what is it? What provision is made for maintaining the accuracy of the instrument and its use, if any?
- Option B: Research objectives describe concisely what the research is trying to achieve. They summarize the accomplishments a researcher wishes to achieve through the project and provide direction to the study.
- Option C: Academic research standards are ethical guidelines that researchers are expected to follow in the course of conducting and reporting research. They are moral principles that guide researchers on how to carry out research activities ethically, without causing harm to the integrity of science and to human or animal life.
- Option D: Effectiveness is a measure of the extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen, or service, when deployed in the field in routine circumstances, does what it is intended to do for a specified population.
- Option E: Read the research article or report in its entirety to get a sense of the study and its contribution to knowledge development. Read the article or report again, paying attention to the questions appropriate to each stage of the critiquing process.
- Option F: The current paper suggests that the following guidelines be used when a qualitative research paper is being examined: the topic must be appropriate for qualitative inquiry; the specific qualitative research method chosen must “fit”; the literature reviewed should be consistent with the method chosen.
Which statement best describes qualitative research? Select all that apply.
- A. Studies are conducted in natural settings.
- B. Data is collected from a large number of subjects.
- C. Data collected tends to be numeric.
- D. The research design is systematic and subjective.
Correct Answers: A, D
Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.
- Option A: Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.
- Option B: Qualitative researchers often consider themselves “instruments” in research because all observations, interpretations, and analyses are filtered through their own personal lens.
- Option C: Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis. Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in subjects such as anthropology, sociology, education, health sciences, history, etc.
- Option D: Common approaches include grounded theory, ethnography, action research, phenomenological research, and narrative research. They share some similarities but emphasize different aims and perspectives.
What does a critique of a research study always include? Select all that apply.
- A. Determining its strengths and weaknesses.
- B. Researching similar studies.
- C. Using critical reading skills.
- D. Explaining your own personal opinions.
Correct Answers: A, C
Reading a single article can act as a springboard into researching the topic more widely and aids in ensuring the nursing practice remains current and is supported by existing literature.
- Option A: Similar to a recipe, the description of materials and methods will allow others to replicate the study elsewhere if needed. It should both contain and justify the exact specifications of selection criteria, sample size, response rate, and any statistics used.
- Option B: The discussion should use previous research work and theoretical concepts as the context in which the new study can be interpreted. Any limitations of the study, including bias, should be clearly presented.
- Option C: Not all peer reviewers have expert knowledge on certain subject matters, which can introduce bias and sometimes a conflict of interest.
- Option D: Publication bias can occur when editors only accept manuscripts that have a bearing on the direction of their own research or reject manuscripts with negative findings.
For which of the following research questions would qualitative methods be most appropriate?
- A. Which pain medications decrease the need for sleep medication in elderly patients?
- B. What is the meaning of health for migrant farm-worker women?
- C. Under what conditions does a decubitus ulcer heal most quickly?
- D. How does frequency of medication administration impact the degree of pain experienced following knee replacement surgery?
Correct Answer: B. What is the meaning of health for migrant farm-worker women?
This question seeks to explore a phenomenon (health) for a specific population. Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.
- Option A: Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.
- Option C: Qualitative research often tries to preserve the voice and perspective of participants and can be adjusted as new research questions arise. Open-ended responses mean that researchers can uncover novel problems or opportunities that they wouldn’t have thought of otherwise.
- Option D: Quantitative methods allow the researcher to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analyzing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth.
Which of the following phrases would be found in a report of a qualitative study?
- A. “The hypothesis of this study is?”
- B. “Perceived pain was measured using the Abbott pain scale?”
- C. “The control group received no instruction?”
- D. “Subjects were asked to relate their perceptions of pain?”
Correct Answer: D. “Subjects were asked to relate their perceptions of pain?”
Data collected were perceptions of pain, not numeric data. Other options are found in a report of a quantitative study. Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.
- Option A: Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations.
- Option B: Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research, which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis. Quantitative research is widely used in the natural and social sciences: biology, chemistry, psychology, economics, sociology, marketing, etc.
- Option C: To collect quantitative data, the researcher will often need to use operational definitions that translate abstract concepts (e.g., mood) into observable and quantifiable measures (e.g., self-ratings of feelings and energy levels).
Which of the following phrases would be found in a report of a quantitative study?
- A. “A convenience sample was chosen?”
- B. “The phenomenon studied was?”
- C. “Data were analyzed and interpreted?”
- D. “Researchers sought to explore the meaning of the hospital experience?”
Correct Answer: A. “A convenience sample was chosen?”
When a sample of convenience is chosen, the study is a quantitative study. Data from large samples can be processed and analyzed using reliable and consistent procedures through quantitative data analysis. Quantitative research is often used to standardize data collection and generalize findings.
- Option B: Qualitative studies explore phenomena. Researchers investigate a phenomenon or event by describing and interpreting participants’ lived experiences. Qualitative researchers often consider themselves “instruments” in research because all observations, interpretations and analyses are filtered through their own personal lens.
- Option C: Data collected in qualitative studies are “interpreted.” Qualitative research is used to understand how people experience the world. While there are many approaches to qualitative research, they tend to be flexible and focus on retaining rich meaning when interpreting data.
- Option D: Qualitative studies explore the meaning of human experience. Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data (e.g., text, video, or audio) to understand concepts, opinions, or experiences. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research.
Which of the following hypotheses are indicative of an experimental research design? Select all that apply.
- A. Frequent irrigation of Foley catheters will be positively related to urinary tract infections.
- B. The incidence of urinary tract infections will be greater in patients whose Foley catheters are irrigated frequently than in those whose Foley catheters are irrigated less frequently.
- C. Frequent irrigation of Foley catheters is associated with urinary tract infections.
- D. The incidence of urinary tract infections will not differ between patients with or without Foley catheters.
- E. The perception of pain from patients who had catheters varies greatly.
Correct Answers: B, D
Experimental research, often considered to be the “gold standard” in research designs, is one of the most rigorous of all research designs. In this design, one or more independent variables are manipulated by the researcher (as treatments), subjects are randomly assigned to different treatment levels (random assignment), and the results of the treatments on outcomes (dependent variables) are observed.
- Option A: In experimental research, some subjects are administered one or more experimental stimuli called a treatment (the treatment group ) while other subjects are not given such a stimulus (the control group ). The treatment may be considered successful if subjects in the treatment group rate more favorably on outcome variables than control group subjects.
- Option B: The unique strength of experimental research is its internal validity (causality) due to its ability to link cause and effect through treatment manipulation while controlling for the spurious effect of extraneous variables.
- Option C: Treatments are the unique feature of experimental research that sets this design apart from all other research methods. Treatment manipulation helps control for the “cause” in cause-effect relationships.
- Option D: Experimental research is best suited for explanatory research (rather than for descriptive or exploratory research), where the goal of the study is to examine cause-effect relationships. It also works well for research that involves a relatively limited and well-defined set of independent variables that can either be manipulated or controlled.
- Option E: Random assignment is however a process of randomly assigning subjects to experimental or control groups. This is a standard practice in true experimental research to ensure that treatment groups are similar (equivalent) to each other and to the control group, prior to treatment administration.
Which statements are part of the criteria used to judge the soundness of a stated research question? Select all that apply.
- A. A relationship between two or more variables.
- B. An operational definition of each variable.
- C. The nature of the population being tested.
- D. The possibility of empirical testing.
- E. A guiding framework for research.
Correct Answers: A, C, D, E
A research question is a question that a study or research project aims to answer. This question often addresses an issue or a problem, which, through analysis and interpretation of data, is answered in the study’s conclusion.
- Option A: Moreover, the research question has a domino effect on the rest of the study. These questions influence factors, such as the research methodology, sample size, data collection, and data analysis (Lipowski, 2008).
- Option B: The primary importance of framing the research question is that it narrows down a broad topic of interest into a specific area of study (Creswell, 2014). Research questions can be classified into different categories, depending on the type of research to be done.
- Option C: In most studies, the research question is written so that it outlines various aspects of the study, including the population and variables to be studied and the problem the study addresses.
- Option D: As their name implies, research questions are often grounded on research. As a result, these questions are dynamic; this means researchers can change or refine the research question as they review related literature and develop a framework for the study.
- Option E: Research questions, along with hypotheses, also serve as a guiding framework for research. These questions also specifically reveal the boundaries of the study, setting its limits, and ensuring cohesion.
Which criteria are used to determine the testability of a hypothesis? Select all that apply.
- A. Use of quantifiable words such as greater than or less than.
- B. A hypothesis stated in such a way that it can be clearly supported or not supported.
- C. The use of value-laden words in a hypothesis.
- D. Data-collection efforts that prove the validity of the hypothesis.
Correct Answers: A, B
Testability refers to the ability to run an experiment to test a hypothesis or theory. When designing a research hypothesis, the questions being asked by the researcher must be testable or the study becomes impossible to provide an answer to the inquiry. Testability refers not only to methods used for the investigation but also the constraints of the researcher.
- Option A: Quantifiable words increase the testability of a hypothesis. Write the hypothesis in such a way that it can be proven or disprove it. In many cases, researchers might draw a hypothesis from a specific theory or build on previous research.
- Option B: The more clearly the hypothesis is stated, the easier it will be to accept or reject it based on study findings. It must be possible to prove that the hypothesis is true or false.
- Option C: Hypotheses should not have value-laden words. A variable is a factor or element that can be changed and manipulated in ways that are observable and measurable. However, the researcher must also define how the variable will be manipulated and measured in the study.
- Option D: Data-collection processes are not part of the criterion used to evaluate the testability of hypotheses. Identify the independent and dependent variables in the hypothesis. The independent variable is what the researcher is controlling or changing. The researcher measures the effect this has on the dependent variable.
What are the advantages of using directional hypotheses? Select all that apply.
- A. The indication of the use of a theory base to derive the hypothesis.
- B. The provision of a specific theoretical frame of reference.
- C. Ensurance that findings will be generalizable.
- D. The indication of a non-biased selection of subjects.
Correct Answer: A, B
A directional (or one-tailed hypothesis) states which way the researcher thinks the results are going to go, for example in an experimental study we might say…”Participants who have been deprived of sleep for 24 hours will have more cold symptoms in the following week after exposure to a virus than participants who have not been sleep deprived.”
- Option A: A decent hypothesis will contain two variables, in the case of an experimental hypothesis there will be an IV and a DV; in a correlational hypothesis there will be two co-variables.
- Option B: A test of a nondirectional alternative hypothesis does not state the direction of the difference, it indicates only that a difference exists. In contrast, a directional alternative hypothesis specifies the direction of the tested relationship, stating that one variable is predicted to be larger or smaller than the null value.
- Option C: A directional hypothesis is a prediction made by a researcher regarding a positive or negative change, relationship, or difference between two variables of a population.
- Option D: A directional hypothesis is a one-tailed hypothesis that states the direction of the difference or relationship (e.g. boys are more helpful than girls).