Welcome to your NCLEX reviewer and practice questions quiz for growth and development. In this nursing test bank, test your competence on the different theories on growth and development. The goal of this quiz is to help nursing students master the concepts of growth and development through these practice questions and NCLEX reviewer.
Table of Contents
- Part 1: Growth and Development NCLEX Practice Quiz (25 Items)
- Part 2: Growth and Development NCLEX Practice Quiz (25 Items)
Growth and Development Practice Quiz
In this section are the practice questions for growth and development. This nursing test bank set includes 50 questions divided into two parts. Included topics are theories of growth and development, developmental stages by Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, and Sigmund Freud‘s Psychosexual Development.
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Growth and Development NCLEX Practice Quiz (Part 2: 25 Items)
In this set, there are 25 practice questions about growth and development.
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Question 1 of 25
The nurse is caring for the mother of a newborn. The nurse recognizes that the mother needs more teaching regarding cord care because sheCorrectIncorrect
Question 2 of 25
A client telephones the clinic to ask about a home pregnancy test she used this morning. The nurse understands that the presence of which hormone strongly suggests a woman is pregnant?CorrectIncorrect
Question 3 of 25
The nurse is assessing a six-month-old child. Which developmental skills are normal and should be expected?CorrectIncorrect
Question 4 of 25
While teaching a 10-year-old child about their impending heart surgery, the nurse shouldCorrectIncorrect
Question 5 of 25
When caring for an elderly client it is important to keep in mind the changes in color vision that may occur. What colors are apt to be most difficult for the elderly to distinguish?CorrectIncorrect
Question 6 of 25
While giving nursing care to a hospitalized adolescent, the nurse should be aware that the major threat felt by the hospitalized adolescent isCorrectIncorrect
Question 7 of 25
A woman who is 32 years old and 35 weeks pregnant has had rupture of membranes for eight hours and is four (4) cm dilated. Since she is a candidate for infection, the nurse should include which of the following in the care plan?CorrectIncorrect
Question 8 of 25
The nurse prepares for a Denver Screening test with a 3-year-old child in the clinic. The mother asks the nurse to explain the purpose of the test. The best response is to tell her that the testCorrectIncorrect
Question 9 of 25
A 27-year-old woman has Type I diabetes mellitus. She and her husband want to have a child, so they consulted her diabetologist, who gave her information on pregnancy and diabetes. Of primary importance for the diabetic woman who is considering pregnancy should beCorrectIncorrect
Question 10 of 25
The nurse is planning care for an 18 month-old child. Which of the following should be included in the child’s care?CorrectIncorrect
Question 11 of 25
The nurse in an infertility clinic is discussing the treatment routine. The nurse advises the couple that the major stressor for couples being treated for infertility is usuallyCorrectIncorrect
Question 12 of 25
The nurse is assessing a four-month-old infant. The nurse would anticipate finding that the infant would be able toCorrectIncorrect
Question 13 of 25
The nurse is evaluating a new mother feeding her newborn. Which observation indicates the mother understands proper feeding methods for her newborn?CorrectIncorrect
Question 14 of 25
The nurse is caring for a pregnant client. The client asks how the doctor could tell she was pregnant ‘just by looking inside.’ The nurse tells her the most likely explanation is that she had a positive Chadwick’s sign, which is aCorrectIncorrect
Question 15 of 25
Which of the following is the most appropriate activity for a 5-year-old child?CorrectIncorrect
Question 16 of 25
Ben feels hatred each time he sees her father showing affection to her mother. According to Freud, this behavior is known as?CorrectIncorrect
Question 17 of 25
A woman who is six months pregnant is seen in antepartal clinic. She states she is having trouble with constipation. To minimize this condition, the nurse should instruct her toCorrectIncorrect
Question 18 of 25
The nurse is observing children playing in the hospital playroom. She would expect to see 5-year-old children playing:CorrectIncorrect
Question 19 of 25
The nurse is caring for residents in a long-term care setting for the elderly. Which of the following activities based on Erickson’s theory will be most effective in meeting the growth and development needs of a person in this age group?CorrectIncorrect
Question 20 of 25
Emily is talking to her 6 year-old sister Julia. She asks why the sun shines so bright? Julia answered that “it always keeps her warm. What stage in the cognitive theory of development explains this?CorrectIncorrect
Question 21 of 25
A pregnant woman is advised to alter her diet during pregnancy by increasing her protein and Vitamin C to meet the needs of the growing fetus. Which diet best meets the client’s needs?CorrectIncorrect
Question 22 of 25
Kelly, a first-time mother, went to the community clinic and asked the nurse what kind of toy would be most appropriate for her 15th-month-old child?CorrectIncorrect
Question 23 of 25
The following are the descriptions of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development. Put them in the correct order from levels 1 to 3, simply drag and drop the choices below.
E. Emphasis on individual rights
A. Conforms to avoid censure by authorities
C. Individual principles of conscience
F. Avoidance of punishment
B. Act to further one’s own interest or personal gain
D. Conforms to avoid disapproval or dislike by others
Question 24 of 25
Erickson’s stage of psychosocial development in which social relationships develop and productivity increases.CorrectIncorrect
Question 25 of 25
A 3-year old boy with vesicoureteral reflux is scheduled for ureteral reimplantation. His father plans to go home during the surgery to get his favorite toy. When the father left, the boy asked the nurse when will his father be back? The nurse’s best response is:CorrectIncorrect
Growth and Development Review
This reviewer is prepared to give you a brief knowledge about the growth and development, including the different theories, physiologic changes, hospital reaction by age, and the different developmental milestones.
Theories of Growth and Development
The following are some of the theories involving child development that have been proposed by these well-known theorists:
Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
- According to Erickson, a human being must go through a series of psychosocial developmental stages that must be balanced throughout the lifespan.
- Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial conflict that must reach a resolution to allow the individual to go on the next phase of development.
Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
- Trust vs Mistrust: Infancy (birth to 18 months)
- Task: attachment to the mother/caregiver
- Successful outcome: feeling of trust
- Unsuccessful outcome: mistrust, suspicion, uncertainty of the future
- Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: Early childhood (18 months to 3 years)
- Task: develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and sense of independence
- Successful outcome: feeling of self-control, self sufficiency
- Unsuccessful outcome: lack of independence, feelings of self-doubt
- Initiative vs Guilt: Late childhood (3 to 6 years)
- Task: become purposeful and directive
- Successful outcome: sense of purpose
- Unsuccessful outcome: sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative
- Industry vs Inferiority School age (6 to 12 years)
- Task: develop physical, social, and learning skills
- Successful outcome: self-confidence, competence
- Unsuccessful outcome: feelings of inferiority, poor self concept
- Identity vs Role Confusion: Adolescence (12-20 years)
- Task: develop sense of self and personal identity
- Successful outcome: sense of strong identity
- Unsuccessful outcome: self-confusion
- Intimacy vs Isolation: Early adulthood (20-35 years)
- Task: form intimate, loving relationship with other people
- Successful outcome: strong relationship
- Unsuccessful outcome: loneliness, isolation
- Generativity vs Stagnation: Middle adulthood (35 to 65 years)
- Task: achieve life goals and creating positive change for the benefit of others
- Successful outcome: feelings of accomplishment
- Unsuccessful outcome: inability to grow as a person
- Integrity vs Despair: Late adulthood (65 years to death)
- Task: reflection on life
- Successful outcome: sense of fulfillment and integrity
- Unsuccessful outcome: regret, bitterness,dissatisfaction with life
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
- The theory focuses on concepts of language, scientific reasoning, memory, and moral development.
- According to Piaget, to progress from one stage to the next, the child reorganizes his or her thinking process to bring them close to reality.
4 Stages of Cognitive Development
- Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
- Present at birth, the infant/child uses reflexes like sucking, grasping, looking, and listening to gain an understanding about the environment.
- Object permanence (objects continue to exist even though it can no longer be seen or heard) and separation anxiety develops in this stage.
- Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years)
- The child begins to use language and think symbolically.
- Egocentrism (inability to see a situation from another person’s point of view) is evident in this stage.
- Comprehends simple abstract but thinking is usually concrete and literal
- Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years)
- The child can think logically but can only apply it to physical objects.
- The child starts to use concepts of number, time, space, and volume.
- Formal operational stage (11 years to adulthood)
- Individuals demonstrate the ability to think abstractly, reason logically, and draw conclusions.
- Can engage in hypothetical thinking and scientific reasoning.
Sigmund Freud’s Psychosexual Development
- According to Freud, the child’s development goes through a series of psychosexual stages in which the child’s desires become focused on a particular body part.
- Each stage is presented with a conflict that will help build or suppress growth depending on how they are resolved.
Stages of Psychosocial Development
- Oral stage (birth to 1 year)
- Mouth is the center of gratification through sucking, chewing, swallowing, breastfeeding, and biting.
- Improper resolution in this stage, may lead to oral fixation habits such as nail-biting, thumb sucking, smoking, and excessive drinking.
- Anal stage (1 to 3 years)
- Child finds pleasure and sense of control through retention and defecation of feces
- Toilet training is present that provides the child a sense of self-control.
- Parents that are too lenient during toilet training will result in an anal-expulsive personality which includes being messy, disorganized, rebellious, and careless.
- Parents that are too strict or start toilet training too early will result to anal-retentive personality which includes being overly obsessive, and rigid.
- Phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
- Interest in the genital area and masturbation are sources of pleasure in this stage.
- Awareness of sexual difference can result in Oedipus complex (Electra complex in women), an unconscious desire for the parent of the opposite sex while developing a conflict for the parent of the same-sex.
- Latent stage (6 to 12 years)
- Sexual urges diminish and children start to channel their sexual energies in honing their values and developing their new skills to form relationships with other people.
- Fixation in this stage can lead to immaturity and a failure to form relationships as an adult.
- Genital stage (12 years to adulthood)
- Starts with the onset of puberty when physical maturity prepares the body for reproduction.
- Individuals starts to develop sexual and emotional interest towards the opposite sex.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
- Kohlberg believed that a person can acquire knowledge of moral values through active thinking and reasoning.
Stages of Moral Development
Here are three levels of moral development with each level consists of different stages:
Level 1: Preconventional Morality
- Stage 0 (birth to 2 years). Egocentric Judgement: no concept of right or wrong
- Stage 1 (2 to 3 years). Obedience and Punishment: behavior driven by avoiding punishment.
- Stage 2 (4 to 7 years). Individualism and Exchange: behavior is driven by rewards or have favors returned.
- Level 2: Conventional Morality
- Stage 3 (7 to 10 years). Good Boy- Nice Girl Orientation: behavior is determined by social approval.
- Stage 4 (10-12 years). Law and Order Orientation: social rules and laws determine behavior.
- Level 3: Postconventional Morality
- Stage 5: Social Contract and Legalistic Orientation: rules and laws exist for the greater good of all.
- Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Orientation: development of own moral principles even if they conflict with the law of the society.
Physiologic Growth and development
- Weight. Most babies doubled their weight at the rate of 5 to 7 ounce weekly for 6 months and tripled at 12 months.
- Length. A growth of 1.5 to 2.5 cm is seen monthly from birth to age 6 months while a growth of 1 cm per month is expected from ages 6 to 12 months.
- Fontanel. Anterior fontanel closes by 12 to 18 months of age; Posterior fontanel closes by the end of the second month.
- Head circumference. The average head circumference of a newborn is about 33 to 35 cm, 2 to 3 cm more than chest circumference.
- Teeth. Lower front teeth normally appear by the age of 5 to 9 months while upper front teeth begin to appear by 8 to 12 months. All deciduous teeth (20 in total) will erupt by the 2 ½ years of age.
Here are the important milestones that an infant goes through:
2 to 3 months
- Begin to smile
- Coos, makes gurgling noises
- Turn head toward sounds
- Follow objects with eyes
- Hold head and chest up when prone
4 to 5 months
- Smile spontaneously
- Cooing and babbling when spoken to
- Grasp objects
- Rolls over by self
- Hold head steady, unsupported
6 to 7 months
- Recognize familiar faces and begins to show fear of strangers
- May say vowel sounds when babbling (oh oh) and imitate sounds
- Responds when own name is heard
- Sit with support
- Rolls back and forth and vice versa
- Show feelings of joys and annoyance
8 to 9 months
- Say first words such as (ma-ma-ma, ba-ba-ba)
- Uses index finger and thumb to pick up objects
- Can sit securely unsupported
- Stands, holding on
- Begin to stand without help
10 to 11 months
- Use simple gestures such as waving “bye-bye”
- Walk with support while holding onto objects
- Stand alone
- Say simple words like “mama” or “dada”
- Get to a sitting position with no help
- Can drink from a cup and hold spoon to feed self
15 to 18 months
- Say several single words
- Understand and follow simple instructions
- Can point to one body part
- Walks alone
- Walk up and down stairs while holding on
- Can help undress oneself
Hospitalized Reaction by age
A summary of the normal developments expected in a child during hospitalization at different age stages:
- Infant and toddler. Characterized by separation anxiety, loss of control (shown in behaviors related to toileting, feeding, bedtime), and fears of bodily pain and injury
- 3 phases of separation anxiety:
- Protest- hours and several days of screaming, crying, and is inconsolable.
- Despair- child becomes withdrawn, hopeless, and apathetic.
- Detachment- occurs after prolonged separation of parent; child appears to have adjusted to the loss; becomes more interested in the environment; appears to be happy and content with caregivers and other children.
- Encourage parents to stay with and participate in the care as often as possible.
- Continue and maintain the same routine to what the infant/toddler is accustomed to.
- Provide comfort measures such as their favorite toy, pacifier for oral and sucking stimulation, and blanket.
- Provide a safe environment especially during temper tantrums such as side rails up, keeping equipment out of reach.
- Allow toddler with opportunities to make choices to gain some control.
- Provide age appropriate distraction and pain reducing techniques.
- 3 phases of separation anxiety:
- Preschooler. separation anxiety decreases, fears loss of family routine and schedules, and fear of bodily injury from invasive procedures; believes that hospitalization is a punishment for bad actions.
- Encourage parents to stay with and participate in the care as often as possible.
- Acknowledge and allow expression of fears and anger
- Explain procedures in simple terms
- Encourage interaction and play with other children of the same age
- Encourage the preschooler to be independent
- Bring a familiar items with the child
- Continue to set normal limits and provide structure
- School age. Fears of getting behind in school, fear of disability and death, loss of control and independence, separation from family and friends, child may ask many actions and relate his or her actions with the cause of condition.
- Explain illness, and treatment to child and patent (use body diagrams, models or videotapes)
- Encourage independence and provide choices as much as possible
- Allow participation in discussion and expression of feelings and fears
- Continue doing school work/assignments if possible
- Provide privacy
- Set limits, and establish routines
- Adolescence. Experience fear of being different, concerns with appearance, fears of separation from friends, loss of privacy and independence, may exhibit withdrawal and noncompliance with the treatment regimen.
- Encourage questions and open discussion regarding the effect of illness or treatment in their appearance and relationship
- Provide clear information about the condition and treatment (may use body diagrams) and involve them in decision making as much as possible
- Maintain privacy such as wearing pajama instead of gown
- Allow visitation from peers if possible
- Encourage interaction with friends and others in the same age group
- One of the leading causes of physical injury and death among children is motor vehicle accidents. An effective measure to prevent these injuries is the use of protective equipment such as car seats. Choosing the right car seat will depend on the age, weight, and developmental needs of the child.
Types of Car Seats
- Rear-facing car seats (birth until the age of 2-4 yrs). Infants and toddlers should be placed in a rear-facing car seat until they reach the maximum weight or height permitted by their car safety seat manufacturer.
- Forward-facing car seat (until at least age 5). When the children start to outgrow their rear-facing seat, they should be restrained in a forward-facing car seat until they reach the maximum weight or height restriction of their car seat.
- Booster seat. Once the children outgrow their forward-facing seat, they should be buckled in a booster seat until seat belts fit properly. This usually occurs when the children are 4 feet and 9 inches tall and age between 8-12.
- Seat belt. A shift to a seat belt is allowed when the child can sit with his or her back straight against the vehicle seat back cushion and the knees are bent over the edge with the absence of slouching. Children under age 13 should be properly buckled in the back seat.
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Additional reading materials and sources for growth and development:
- Ball, J. W., DrPH, R. N., Bindler, R. M., Cowen, K. J., & Shaw, M. R. (2013). Child health nursing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
- Kuokkanen, L., & Leino‐Kilpi, H. (2000). Power and empowerment in nursing: three theoretical approaches. Journal of advanced Nursing, 31(1), 235-241.
- Sacco, R. G. (2013). Re-envisaging the eight developmental stages of Erik Erikson: the Fibonacci life-chart method (FLCM). Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 140-146.
- Thies, K. M., & Travers, J. F. (2008). Quick look nursing: growth and development through the lifespan. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.