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IV Fluids and Solutions Quick Reference Guide Cheat Sheet

IV-Fluids-and-Solutions

Intravenous Solutions are used in fluid replacement therapy by changing the composition of the serum by adding fluids and electrolytes. Listed below is a table which may serve as your quick reference guide on the different intravenous solutions.

Type

Description

Osmolality

Use

Miscellaneous

Normal Saline (NS)

0.9% NaCl in WaterCrystalloid Solution

Isotonic

(308 mOsm)

Increases circulating plasma volume when red cells are adequate
  • Replaces losses without altering fluid concentrations.
  • Helpful for Na+ replacement

1/2 Normal Saline (1/2 NS)

0.45% NaCl in WaterCrystalloid Solution

Hypotonic

(154 mOsm)

Raises total fluid volume
  • Useful for daily maintenance of body fluid, but is of less value for replacement of NaCldeficit.
  • Helpful for establishing renal function.
  • Fluid replacement for clients who don’t need extra glucose (diabetics)

Lactated Ringer’s (LR)

Normal saline with electrolytes and buffer

Isotonic

(275 mOsm)

Replaces fluid and buffers pH
  • Normal saline with K+, Ca++, and lactate (buffer)
  • Often seen with surgery

D5W

Dextrose 5% in water Crystalloid solution

Isotonic (in the bag)

*Physiologically hypotonic

(260 mOsm)

Raises  total fluid volume.Helpful in rehydrating and excretory purposes.
  • Provides 170-200 calories/1,000cc for energy.
  • Physiologically hypotonic -the dextrose is metabolized quickly so that only water remains – a hypotonic fluid

D5NS

Dextrose 5% in 0.9% saline

Hypertonic

(560 mOsm)

Replaces fluid sodium, chloride, and calories.
  • Watch for fluid volume overload

D5 1/2 NS

Dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline

Hypertonic

(406 mOsm)

Useful for daily maintenance of body fluids and nutrition, and for rehydration.
  • Most common postoperative fluid

D5LR

Dextrose 5% in Lactated Ringer’s

Hypertonic

(575 mOsm)

Same as LR plus provides about 180 calories per 1000cc’s.
  • Watch for fluid volume overload

Normosol-R

Normosol

Isotonic

(295 mOsm)

Replaces fluid and buffers pH
  • pH 7.4
  • Contains sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium and magnesium
  • Common fluid for OR and PACU

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