Atorvastatin is a commonly prescribed medication for hypercholesterolemia, a condition characterized by elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood. Nursing interventions play an important role in the management of patients taking atorvastatin. In this drug guide for atorvastatin, learn about its side effects, adverse reactions, nursing considerations, and nursing implementation.
What is Atorvastatin?
Atorvastatin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called statins which are used to lower cholesterol levels in the blood by inhibiting an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase, which is responsible for producing cholesterol in the liver. By reducing the production of cholesterol, statins can help to lower LDL “bad” cholesterol and triglyceride levels, while also increasing HDL “good” cholesterol levels. Atorvastatin is used to treat high cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. It is usually prescribed in combination with a healthy diet and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss. The medication can also be used to prevent heart attack and stroke in people who are at high risk of these conditions.
The generic name of the drug atorvastatin is atorvastatin calcium. It’s the active ingredient that is used to make the medication called atorvastatin which is manufactured by various pharmaceutical companies.
Some of the brand names for atorvastatin include Lipitor (made by Pfizer), and Atorlip (made by Cadila Pharmaceuticals). Lipitor is one of the most well-known brand names for atorvastatin and was first approved by the FDA in 1996. It was the top-selling drug in the world for several years.
Drug Classification of Atorvastatin
- lipid-lowering agents
- HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Indications and Therapeutic Effects
Atorvastatin is indicated for a variety of different medical conditions related to high cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease. The main indications for atorvastatin include:
Atorvastatin is used to lower high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. It is used to treat hyperlipidemia, a condition characterized by elevated levels of LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, low levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides.
2. Cardiovascular disease prevention.
Atorvastatin is also used to prevent cardiovascular disease in people who are at high risk. It is particularly useful for individuals with a history of heart disease or stroke, or those who have other risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, or a family history of heart disease.
3. Heart disease risk reduction.
It is also used to reduce the risk of recurrent events in people who have already had a heart attack or stroke.
4. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH).
Atorvastatin is also used in the treatment of Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH), a rare genetic disorder where the cholesterol level is extremely high since birth and increases the risk of early cardiovascular disease.
5. Cardiovascular system benefits.
Statins can help improve the endothelial cells’ function that lines the blood vessels, which can help reduce inflammation and prevent the formation of blood clots. They also appear to have an anti-inflammatory effect and can improve the health of the blood vessels.
Mechanism of Action
Atorvastatin works by inhibiting an enzyme called 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which is responsible for producing cholesterol in the liver. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and is also a precursor for the synthesis of bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. The liver produces the majority of cholesterol required by the body, with the remaining cholesterol coming from dietary sources.
HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol, which means that it controls the rate at which cholesterol is produced. Atorvastatin blocks the activity of this enzyme, which in turn decreases the production of cholesterol in the liver.
As a result of the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, the liver increases the number of LDL receptors on the cell surface, which results in increased uptake and catabolism of LDL-cholesterol. Atorvastatin also causes a decrease in the production of VLDL or Very-low-density lipoprotein, which leads to a decrease in triglycerides.
The decreased production of cholesterol and the increased uptake and catabolism of LDL-cholesterol result in a decrease in the levels of LDL-cholesterol in the blood, hence it helps to lower cholesterol levels and ultimately reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
It’s also worth noting that atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects, which means it has multiple actions beyond just reducing cholesterol levels. It has been observed that atorvastatin, by reducing inflammation and preventing the formation of blood clots, can also improve the health of the blood vessels, this effect might be an additional mechanism for cardiovascular disease prevention.
Precautions and Contraindications
There are certain precautions and contraindications that should be taken into consideration when taking or administering atorvastatin.
2. Liver/Kidney diseases.
Atorvastatin can cause liver problems, liver function tests are necessary before starting treatment and while taking atorvastatin, so as to monitor the health of the liver.
3. Other medications.
Atorvastatin may interact with other medications, including some over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Alcohol can increase the risk of liver problems with atorvastatin, so it is best to limit or avoid alcohol while taking the medication.
Atorvastatin is a pregnancy category X medication, meaning that it may cause serious birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not take atorvastatin.
1. Liver/Kidney diseases.
Atorvastatin is contraindicated in individuals who have active liver disease or unexplained persistent elevations of serum transaminases.
Atorvastatin is contraindicated in people who have had previous hypersensitivity reactions to the drug.
Atorvastatin is also contraindicated in nursing mothers.
Atorvastatin should be used cautiously in concurrent use of:
- azole antifungals
- protease inhibitors
- cyclosporine (higher risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis)
Nurses should put into considerations the following drug interactions when the patient is taking atorvastatin.
Atorvastatin can interact with certain medications, supplements, and herbs, affecting how the drug works or increasing the risk of side effects.
Some of the drugs that may interact with atorvastatin include:
- Other cholesterol-lowering medications
- Medications that affect the liver
- Medications that affect the immune system
- Medications that affect blood clotting
- Antacids and other medications that contain:
- It also can interact with other medications
Additionally, atorvastatin may interact with some herbal supplements such as red yeast rice, which contains compounds similar to those found in statins, and can increase the risk of side effects.
Also, atorvastatin may interact with food such as:
- Grapefruit or grapefruit juice. This can increase the amount of atorvastatin in the bloodstream and increase the risk of side effects.
Like all medications, atorvastatin can cause side effects, although not everyone experiences them.
The most common side effects associated with atorvastatin are relatively mild and include:
Less common side effects include:
- Joint pain
- Skin rash
- Back pain
Rarely, atorvastatin can cause more serious side effects, such as:
- Liver damage. Atorvastatin can cause liver problems, although this is rare. Notify the healthcare provider and report any symptoms of liver problems, such as yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, or stomach pain.
- Muscle damage. Atorvastatin can cause muscle damage, which can be serious and potentially lead to a condition called rhabdomyolysis. Symptoms of muscle damage include muscle pain or weakness, dark urine, and fever.
- Changes in blood sugar levels. Atorvastatin may increase blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, and in rare cases, it can lead to the development of diabetes.
- Cognitive side effects. Reports of memory loss, confusion, and other cognitive side effects associated with atorvastatin and other statins have been documented, but these effects are rare and controversial.
Atorvastatin only comes in the form of a tablet taken by mouth.
Dosage for Children
- PO (Children 10 – 17 yr):
- 10 mg/day initially, may be increased every 4 wk up to 20 mg/day;
- Concurrent nelfinavir therapy — Dose should not exceed 40 mg/day;
- Concurrent clarithromycin, itraconazole, saquinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, fosamprenavir, or fosamprenavir/ritonavir therapy — Dose should not exceed 20 mg/day.
- PO (Children 10 – 17 yr):
- 5 – 20 mg once daily.
- PO (Children 8 – <10 yr):
- 5 – 10 mg once daily.
Dosage for Adults
- PO (Adults):
- 10 – 20 mg once daily initially; (may start with 40 mg/day if LDL-C needs to be decreased by >45%); may be increased every 2 – 4 wk up to 80 mg/day;
- Concurrent nelfinavir therapy — Dose should not exceed 40 mg/ day;
- Concurrent clarithromycin, itraconazole, saquinavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, fosamprenavir, or fosamprenavir/ritonavir therapy — Dose should not exceed 20 mg/day.
The pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin refers to the way that the drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body.
- Absorption. Atorvastatin is orally administered and is well-absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, with peak plasma concentrations occurring within 1-2 hours after dosing. The bioavailability of atorvastatin is approximately 14%.
- Distribution. Atorvastatin is rapidly distributed to tissues throughout the body following oral administration. The volume of distribution of atorvastatin is approximately 380 L, which is indicative of distribution into the extracellular fluid compartment. Atorvastatin probably enters breast milk.
- Protein Binding. Atorvastatin is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily to serum albumin, with a binding percentage of about >98%.
- Metabolism and Excretion. The drug is extensively metabolized in the liver, with less than 2% of the administered dose being excreted unchanged in the urine. The main metabolic pathway for atorvastatin is through hydroxylation by the enzyme CYP3A4, followed by conjugation with glucuronic acid.
- Half-life. Atorvastatin is lipophilic and accumulates in fatty tissues, contributing to its long elimination half-life. The elimination half-life of atorvastatin is approximately 14 hours, meaning it takes about 14 hours for half of the drug to be eliminated from the body. The drug and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the feces.
The pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin is not significantly affected by food and can be taken regardless of the meal. However, taking atorvastatin with certain drugs and substances such as grapefruit juice, or the use of concomitant medications that are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4, can increase the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin.
Nursing Considerations of Atorvastatin
It is important for nurses to carefully assess the patient’s condition and individual needs, and to develop a plan of care based on the findings. This may include providing patient education, monitoring for side effects and potential complications, and implementing interventions to manage any identified risks or problems. It is also necessary to keep in mind that the considerations may vary for each patient, depending on their medical history, other concurrent conditions, and medications. The following are several nursing considerations when caring for patients who are taking atorvastatin.
A nursing assessment for a patient taking atorvastatin would involve gathering information about the patient’s current health status, including any chronic conditions or other medications they are currently taking.
Some specific things that a nurse may assess for include:
1. Obtain a dietary history, especially with regard to fat consumption.
A diet history is an important aspect of the assessment for patients taking atorvastatin, as diet plays a key role in the management of hypercholesterolemia. It allows the nurse to identify areas where the patient may benefit from dietary interventions and provide appropriate education and resources to help the patient improve their cholesterol levels and overall health.
2. Evaluate patient’s lifestyle.
Assess the patient’s diet, exercise, and weight management habits, and provide education and resources on how to make healthy lifestyle choices to improve cholesterol levels.
3. Obtain a detailed medication history including the indication for the atorvastatin therapy, the dose, frequency, and duration of therapy, and any other medications or supplements the patient is taking.
Medication history can provide crucial information that can affect the patient’s response to atorvastatin, and help to identify potential drug interactions and contraindications. It is important to review the patient’s medications, as certain medications and substances such as fibrates, niacin, and grapefruit juice, can interact with atorvastatin and increase the risk of muscle toxicity. Similarly, certain medications such as cyclosporine can interact with atorvastatin and increase the risk of myopathy.
4. Evaluate serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels before initiating, after 4 – 6 wk of therapy, and periodically thereafter.
Assess the patient’s baseline cholesterol levels and monitor for any changes over time. Check for target cholesterol levels that is set for the patient.
5. Monitor liver function tests, including AST and ALT, before initiating therapy.
Atorvastatin is primarily metabolized in the liver. Therefore, monitor liver function tests (LFT) and other parameters of liver function regularly, especially in patients with pre-existing liver disease.
6. Assess the patient’s understanding of the medication regimen and any barriers to adherence.
Assessing a patient’s understanding of their medication regimen is an important step in ensuring that they are able to take their medication as prescribed and achieve the desired therapeutic outcomes.
7. Assess for any other cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and family history.
High blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking are all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and having a family history of cardiovascular disease can also increase a person’s risk.
8. Assess the patient’s pregnancy status and breastfeeding status, and provide appropriate education and resources.
It’s important to note that there are no adequate and well-controlled studies of atorvastatin in pregnant women and animal studies have shown adverse effects. So it’s important to inform a healthcare provider if the patient is pregnant or planning to be pregnant, before taking this medication.
9. Assess for any additional considerations that may be relevant in older adults, such as comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and functional status.
Older adults may be at an increased risk for certain side effects when taking atorvastatin or other medications in the statin class. It’s important for healthcare providers to monitor older adults closely for any potential side effects, particularly muscle pain or weakness, which may indicate the development of a condition known as rhabdomyolysis. Additionally, some older adults may have difficulty remembering to take their medication as prescribed, so it may be helpful to set reminders or have a family member or caretaker assist with medication management.
10. Monitor for therapeutic response.
Regularly check the patient’s cholesterol levels and assess whether the atorvastatin therapy is effectively lowering the patient’s cholesterol to the target levels.
11. Monitor for side effects.
Atorvastatin can cause side effects such as muscle pain, weakness, or tenderness, and in rare cases, rhabdomyolysis (a serious muscle disorder). Inform the patient about these potential side effects, and instruct them to report any muscle pain or weakness to their healthcare provider.
12. Check for any muscle problems.
The nurse would check for any muscle pain or weakness, as these symptoms may indicate the development of a condition called rhabdomyolysis, which is a serious adverse effect of statins including atorvastatin.
13. Monitor CK levels.
If a patient develops muscle tenderness during therapy, monitor CK levels. CK levels are >10 times the upper limit of normal or myopathy occurs, therapy should be discontinued.
14. Monitor for signs and symptoms of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) (proximal muscle weakness and increased serum creatine kinase), persisting despite discontinuation of statin therapy.
Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare, but serious side effect that has been associated with the use of statins including Atorvastatin. It is an autoimmune disorder that causes muscle inflammation and weakness, and can lead to permanent muscle damage if not identified and treated promptly. The signs and symptoms of IMNM can include:
- Progressive muscle weakness, especially in the proximal muscles (shoulder and hip girdles)
- Muscle pain or tenderness
- Elevated muscle enzymes (creatine kinase)
- Elevated muscle antibody (anti-HMGCR)
A nursing diagnosis is a statement that describes a patient’s actual or potential health problems or life situations, and is used as a basis for planning and providing care. Here are a few examples of nursing diagnoses that may apply to a patient taking atorvastatin:
- Risk for injury related to muscle weakness or pain as a side effect of atorvastatin therapy
- Ineffective health maintenance behaviors related to lack of understanding of the medication regimen
- Readiness for enhanced health self-management related to a willingness to make lifestyle changes
- Deficient knowledge regarding the medication regimen and its potential side effects
The nursing diagnosis will be revised and updated as the patient’s condition changes and evolves.
Atorvastatin Nursing Interventions
1. Inform the patient that atorvastatin may be taken at any time of the day.
Sometimes healthcare providers may recommend taking it in the evening. This is because the body makes most cholesterol at night. It may also be administered without regard to food.
2. Advise the patient to avoid grapefruit juice and products.
Atorvastatin interacts with grapefruit juice in large quantities (more than 1.2 liters daily), but an occasional glass is thought to be safe. A daily glass of grapefruit juice raises the blood levels of simvastatin and lovastatin by 260% if taken at the same time. Grapefruit juice is not contraindicated for statin-using patients. The increased risk of rhabdomyolysis associated with increased statin dose is negligible (Lee et al., 2016).
3. Advise the patient to avoid alcohol consumption during treatment.
Atorvastatin may cause liver problems and using it with substantial quantities of alcohol may increase that risk. It is necessary to limit the use of alcohol while being treated with atorvastatin.
4. Encourage the patient to engage in regular physical activity and weight management as part of a comprehensive plan.
This is vital to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
5. Reinforce the importance of taking the medication exactly as prescribed and not stopping or changing the dosage without consulting a healthcare provider.
Only the physician or healthcare provider may decide to lower the dose or change the medicine to avoid unwanted effects.
6. Provide patient education.
This may include teaching the patient about the proper dosing instructions, potential side effects, and precautions to take when taking atorvastatin.
Patient Education and Teaching
When teaching a patient about atorvastatin, it is important to consider the following approaches:
1. Instruct the patient that the medication should be taken at the same time each day, with or without food.
This prevents the blood levels from becoming too high or too low. Sometimes healthcare providers may recommend taking it in the evening. This is because the body makes most cholesterol at night.
2. Instruct the patient to take medication as directed and not to skip doses or double up on missed doses.
Missing several consecutive doses raises additional problems. If the patient missed a dose, advise the patient to take it as soon as he or she remembers. If it is near the time of the next dose, advise the patient to skip the missed dose and take the next dose at the regular time. Inform the patient not to double the dose to catch up.
3. Advise the patient that this medication should be used in conjunction with diet restrictions (fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, alcohol), exercise, and cessation of smoking.
It is important to limit the intake of saturated fats and cholesterol while taking atorvastatin, as these can raise cholesterol levels. Medication helps control but does not cure elevated serum cholesterol levels.
4. Advise the patient to avoid drinking more than 200 mL/day of grapefruit juice during therapy.
Grapefruit juice increases the level of atorvastatin in the blood and makes side effects more likely.
5. Instruct the patient to notify the healthcare professional if there are signs of liver injury, unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, especially if accompanied by fever or malaise.
In rare cases, atorvastatin may cause liver damage. It is important to report any side effects to the healthcare provider, especially if symptoms such as yellowing of the skin or eyes, dark urine, or unusual fatigue are present. Health care providers will determine whether the medication is safe for the patient to continue taking or if a different treatment option is needed.
6. Advise patient to notify healthcare professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and to consult with healthcare professional before taking other medications, especially St. John’s Wort.
Atorvastatin can interact with certain medications, supplements, and herbs, affecting how the drug works or increasing the risk of side effects. St John’s wort, a herbal remedy taken for depression, reduces the amount of atorvastatin in the blood, so it may diminish the effectiveness of atorvastatin therapy.
7. Encourage the patient to continue to follow a healthy diet and exercise regularly.
Taking atorvastatin, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise, can help lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. A healthy diet should be low in saturated fats and cholesterol, and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. It is also important to maintain a healthy weight and manage any other risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
8. Warn the patient on the side effects of atorvastatin therapy such as stomach pain, nausea, and constipation.
Other common side effects of atorvastatin include diarrhea, constipation, joint pain, nausea, heart burn fatigue.
9. Advise patient to notify healthcare professional of medication regimen before treatment or surgery.
Atorvastatin therapy, or treatment with the cholesterol-lowering medication atorvastatin, may be recommended before surgery in some cases. The reason is that high cholesterol levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and surgery can increase the risk of complications such as heart attack or stroke. By lowering cholesterol levels with atorvastatin before surgery, the risk of these complications may be reduced.
10. Advise the patient to report side effects of atorvastatin therapy.
Some side effects may be serious and require prompt attention.
11. Instruct female patients to notify healthcare professional promptly if pregnancy is planned or
Atorvastatin is not recommended during pregnancy. If patient becomes pregnant while taking atorvastatin, advise her to stop taking the medicine and notify the physician.
12. Advise women with reproductive potential to use effective contraception during therapy and discuss plans to discontinue statins if trying to conceive.
Also, advise patient to talk to healthcare professional if she plans to get pregnant.
13. Advise patients to avoid breast feeding during therapy.
It is currently not known if atorvastatin is safe to use while breast feeding. The medication is known to pass into breast milk, but the amount that is passed is not enough to have an effect on a breastfeeding infant. However, there is not enough information available to say for certain whether atorvastatin is safe to use while breast feeding, and the decision to take the medication should be made in consultation with the healthcare provider.
14. Emphasize the importance of follow-up checkups to determine effectiveness and to monitor for side effects.
Follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are important when taking atorvastatin or any other medication. These appointments allow healthcare provider to monitor cholesterol levels and check for any side effects. They also provide an opportunity for patients to ask any questions about the medication or your treatment plan.
Evaluation and Desired Outcomes
It is important to note that while atorvastatin can effectively lower cholesterol levels, it is not a substitute for healthy lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management. Combining atorvastatin therapy with these lifestyle changes can help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease even more.
The following are some of the specific evaluation and desired outcomes for atorvastatin therapy:
- LDL cholesterol reduction. The primary goal of atorvastatin therapy is to lower LDL cholesterol levels. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommends an LDL cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dL for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Triglycerides reduction. Atorvastatin can also help to lower triglyceride levels, which are another type of fat in the blood that can contribute to cardiovascular disease.
- Blood pressure control. High blood pressure is another risk factor for cardiovascular disease, so monitoring and controlling blood pressure is important.
- Cardiovascular events reduction. The ultimate goal of atorvastatin therapy is to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke.
- No or minimal side effects. Atorvastatin therapy should be well tolerated with minimal side effects.
- Adherence to therapy. Patient adherence to therapy is essential for achieving desired outcomes, so healthcare providers should encourage patients to take their medication as prescribed and attend follow-up visits.
Our recommended nursing pharmacology resources and books:
Pharm Phlash! Pharmacology Flash Cards #1 BEST SELLER!
Test-yourself review cards put critical clinical information for nearly 400 of the top generic medications at your fingertips. And, you can count on them for accuracy, because each card is based on content from Davis’s Drug Guide for Nurses. Increase your test scores in pharmacology class.
Focus on Pharmacology (8th Edition)
Focus on Nursing Pharmacology makes challenging concepts more approachable. Engaging learning features cultivate your clinical application, critical thinking and patient education capabilities. This updated 8th edition builds on your knowledge of physiology, chemistry and nursing fundamentals to help you conceptualize need-to-know information about each group of drugs.
Pharmacology Made Incredibly Easy (Incredibly Easy! Series®)
Nursing pharmacology guide offers step-by-step guidance so you can grasp the fundamentals in enjoyable Incredibly Easy style. This is the perfect supplement to class materials, offering solid preparation for NCLEX® as well as a handy refresher for experienced nurses. Colorfully illustrated chapters offer clear, concise descriptions of crucial nursing pharmacology concepts and procedures.
Lehne’s Pharmacology for Nursing Care (11th Edition)
The Eleventh Edition of Lehne’s Pharmacology for Nursing Care provides a thorough understanding of key drugs and their implications for nursing care. This text, written by renowned nursing educators, helps you comprehend and apply pharmacology principles. A clear and engaging writing style simplifies complex concepts, making even the most challenging pharmacology content enjoyable. We recommend this book if you want a comprehensive nursing pharmacology guide.
Nursing Drug Handbook
Nursing2023 Drug Handbook delivers evidence-based, nursing-focused drug monographs for nearly 3700 generic, brand-name, and combination drugs. With a tabbed, alphabetical organization and a “New Drugs” section, NDH2023 makes it easy to check drug facts on the spot.
Pharmacology and the Nursing Process
The 10th edition of Pharmacology and the Nursing Process offers practical, user-friendly pharmacology information. The photo atlas contains over 100 unique illustrations and photographs depicting drug administration techniques. Updated drug content reflects the most recent FDA drug approvals, withdrawals, and therapeutic uses.
Mosby’s Pharmacology Memory NoteCards: Visual, Mnemonic, and Memory Aids for Nurses
The 6th edition of Mosby’s Pharmacology Memory NoteCards: Visual, Mnemonic, & Memory Aids for Nurses incorporates illustrations and humor to make studying easier and more enjoyable. This unique pharmacology review can be utilized as a spiral-bound notebook or as individual flashcards, making it ideal for mobile study.
Here are other nursing pharmacology study guides:
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Drug Guides NEW!
- Aspirin Nursing Considerations & Patient Teaching Drug Guide
- Atorvastatin (Lipitor) Nursing Considerations & Patient Teaching Drug Guide
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Nursing Considerations & Patient Teaching Drug Guide
Gastrointestinal System Drugs
Respiratory System Drugs
- Bronchodilators and Antiasthmatics
- Expectorants and Mucolytics
- Inhaled Steroids
- Lung Surfactants
Endocrine System Drugs
- Adrenocortical Agents
- Antidiabetic Agents
- Glucose-Elevating Agents
- Hypothalamic Agents
- Parathyroid Agents: Bisphosphonates, Calcitonins
- Pituitary Drugs
- Thyroid Agents
Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
- Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)
- Adrenergic Antagonists (Sympatholytics)
- Anticholinergics (Parasympatholytics)
- Cholinergic Agonists (Parasympathomimetics)
Immune System Drugs
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Reproductive System Drugs
Nervous System Drugs
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- Narcotics, Narcotic Agonists, and Antimigraine Agents
- Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents
- Psychotherapeutic Drugs
Cardiovascular System Drugs
References and Sources
To further your research about aspirin nursing considerations, you can use these sources:
- Burchum, J., & Rosenthal, L. (2018). Lehne’s pharmacology for nursing care (10th ed.). Saunders.
- Lee, J. W., Morris, J. K., & Wald, N. J. (2016). Grapefruit Juice and Statins. The American Journal of Medicine, 129(1), 26-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.07.036
- Vallaerand, A.H. & Sanoski, C.A. (2019). Davis’s Drug Guide for Nurses. Philadelphia, PA. F. A. Davis Company.
- Vane, J. R., & Botting, R. M. (2003). The mechanism of action of aspirin. Thrombosis research, 110(5-6), 255-258.
- Vane, J. R. (2014). Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis as the mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs. Adv Biosci, 9, 395-411.