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Lung Surfactants

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By Marianne Belleza, R.N.

Lung surfactants are instilled into the respiratory system of premature infants who do not have enough surfactant to ensure alveolar expansion. Learn about lung surfactants in this nursing pharmacology guide.

Table of Contents

Lung Surfactants: Generic and Brand Names

Here is a table of the most commonly encountered lung surfactants, their generic names, and brand names:

  • Lung surfactants
    • beractant (Survanta)
    • calfactant (Infasurf)
    • poractant (Curosurf)

Disease Spotlight: Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) causes obstruction at the alveolar level.

  • It is frequently seen in premature infants who are delivered before their lungs have fully developed and while surfactant levels are still very low.
  • A surfactant is necessary for lowering the surface tension in the alveoli so that they can stay open to allow the flow of gases.
  • If surfactant levels are low, the alveoli do not expand and cannot receive air, leading to decreased gas exchange, low oxygen levels, and generalized distress throughout the body as cells do not receive oxygen that they need to survive.
  • Treatment is aimed at instilling surfactant to prevent atelectasis and to allow the lungs to expand.
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by progressive loss of lung compliance and increasing hypoxia.
  • This syndrome typically results from a severe insult to the body, such as cardiovascular collapse, major burns, severe trauma, or rapid depressurization.
  • Treatment of ARDS involves the reversal of the underlying cause of the problem combined with ventilation support.

What are Lung surfactants?

Lung surfactants are naturally occurring compounds or lipoproteins containing lipids and apoproteins that reduce the surface tension within the alveoli, allowing expansion of the alveoli for gas exchange.

Therapeutic actions

The desired actions of lung surfactants include:

  • Used to replace the surfactant that is missing in the lungs of neonates with RDS.

Indications of Lung surfactants

Lung surfactants are indicated for the following:

  • Rescue treatment of infants who have RDS.
  • Prophylactic treatment of infants at high risk for development of RDS (birth weight of <1, 350g, birth weight >1, 350g who have evidence of respiratory immaturity).
  • This drug is being tried in the treatment of adult RDS and with adults after near drowning.

Pharmacokinetics

These drugs are instilled directly into the trachea and begin to act immediately on instillation.

RouteOnsetPeakHalf-life (T1/2)Metabolization
IntratrachealImmediateHoursUnknownSurfactant pathways

Contraindications and Cautions

Because lung surfactants are used as emergency drugs in newborn, there are no contraindications.

Adverse effects

Adverse effects from the use of lung surfactants include:

Nursing considerations for Lung surfactants

Nursing considerations for patients taking lung surfactants include:

Nursing Assessment

History taking and physical exam of patients using lung surfactants include the following:

  • Assess for possible contraindications and cautions: screen for the time of birth and exact weight to determine appropriate doses; because this drug is used as an emergency treatment, there are no contraindications to screen for.
  • Perform a physical examination to establish baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of the drug and the occurrence of any adverse effects associated with drug therapy.
  • Assess the skin temperature and color to evaluate perfusion.
  • Monitor respirations, adventitious sounds, endotracheal tube placement and patency,  and chest movements to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug and drug delivery.
  • Evaluate blood pressure, pulse, and arterial pressure to monitor the status of the infant.
  • Evaluate blood gases and oxygen saturation to monitor drug effectiveness.
  • Assess temperature and complete blood count to monitor for sepsis.

Nursing Diagnosis and Care Planning

Nursing diagnosis related to drug therapy of lung surfactants might include the following:

  • Decreased cardiac output related to cardiovascular and respiratory effects of the drug.
  • Risk for injury related to prematurity and risk of infection.
  • Ineffective airway clearance related to the possibility of mucus plugs.
  • Deficient knowledge regarding drug therapy (for parents).

Nursing Implementation with Rationale

The nursing interventions for patients using lung surfactants include the following:

  • Patient monitoring. Monitor the patient continuously during administration and until stable to provide life support measures as needed.
  • Correct endotracheal tube placement. Ensure proper placement of the endotracheal tube with bilateral chest movement and lung sounds to provide adequate delivery of the drug.
  • Review proper administration of drugs. Have staff view the manufacturer’s teaching video before regular use to review the specific technical aspects of administration.
  • Suction the infant. Suction the infant immediately after administration, but do not suction for 2 hours after administration unless clinically necessary, to allow the drug time to work.
  • Offer support. Provide support and encouragement to the parents of the patient, explaining the use of the drug in the teaching program, to help them cope with the diagnosis and treatment of their infant.
  • Continue other measures. Continue other supportive measures related to the immaturity of the infant because this is only one aspect of medical care needed for premature infants.

Evaluation

Evaluation of the patient using lung surfactants include the following:

  • Monitor patient response to the drug (improved breathing, alveolar expansion).
  • Monitor for adverse effects (pneumothorax, patent ductus arteriosus, bradycardia, sepsis).
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching plan and support parents as appropriate.
  • Monitor the effectiveness of other measures to support patient and stabilize the patient.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of other supportive measures related to the immaturity of the infant.

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References and Sources

References and sources for this study guide about Lung Surfactants.

  • Barnes, P. J., & Pedersen, S. (1993). Efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmaAmerican Review of Respiratory Disease148(4_pt_2), S1-S26. [Link]
  • Hinkle, J. L., & Cheever, K. H. (2018). Brunner and Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing. Wolters kluwer india Pvt Ltd.
  • Karch, A. M., & Karch. (2011). Focus on nursing pharmacology. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Katzung, B. G. (2017). Basic and clinical pharmacology. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Lehne, R. A., Moore, L. A., Crosby, L. J., & Hamilton, D. B. (2004). Pharmacology for nursing care.
  • Zasadzinski, J. A., Ding, J., Warriner, H. E., Bringezu, F., & Waring, A. J. (2001). The physics and physiology of lung surfactants. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science6(5-6), 506-513. [Link]
Marianne leads a double life, working as a staff nurse during the day and moonlighting as a writer for Nurseslabs at night. As an outpatient department nurse, she has honed her skills in delivering health education to her patients, making her a valuable resource and study guide writer for aspiring student nurses.

1 thought on “Lung Surfactants”

  1. Comment:Marianne good afternoon and happy new month I want to commend you for the good work you are doing.I know it is real hardwork to combine all these aspects and still do them well.
    I want to say,well done .
    Bridget Obinna

    Reply

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