Macular degeneration is a progressive eye disease wherein the central portion of the retina gradually deteriorates. There are two types of age-related macular degeneration that occur. The dry or atrophic form is characterized by atrophic pigment epithelial changes and is most often associated with slow, progressive, and mild vision loss. The wet type is characterized by subretinal neovascularization that causes leakage, hemorrhage, and fibrovascular scar formation, which produce a significant loss of central vision.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing management of macular degeneration involves supportive lifestyle changes to adapt to the decrease in vision, unless the degeneration is new and caused by abnormal blood vasculature, then laser surgery can sometimes slow or halt the deterioration by sealing off the leaking vessels. Reversal of damage that has already occurred is not possible.
Disturbed Sensory Perception: Visual
- Disturbed Sensory Perception
May be related to
- macular degeneration
- presence of drusen
- central vision loss
- age-related ocular changes
Possibly evidenced by
- distortion of central vision
- Straight lines appear distorted
- objects appearing smaller or larger than normal
- Distortion of vision noted on the grid
- presence of drusen or yellow deposits under the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye
- legal blindness
- subretinal edema
- retinal bleeding
- Patient will regain optimal vision possible and will adapt to permanent visual changes
- Patient will be able to verbalize understanding of visual loss and diseases of eyes.
- Patient will be able to regain vision to the maximum possible extent with surgical procedure.
- Patient will be able to deal with potential for permanent visual loss.
- Patient will maintain a safe environment with no injury noted.
- Patient will be able to use adaptive devices to compensate for visual loss.
- Patient will be compliant with instructions given, and will be able to notify physician for emergency symptoms.
|Assess the patient’s ability to see and perform activities.||Provides a baseline for determination of changes affecting the patient’s visual acuity.|
|Assist in diagnostic procedures and provide appropriate information:|
||Fundus examination through a dilated pupil that may reveal gross macular changes.|
||Used to monitor visual field loss.|
||Sequential photographs that may show leaking vessels as fluorescein dye flows into the tissues from the subretinal neovascular net.|
|Encourage patient to see an ophthalmologist at least yearly.||Can monitor progressive visual loss or complications. Decreases in visual acuity can increase confusion in the elderly patient.|
|Provide sufficient lighting for the patient to carry out activities.||Elderly patients need twice as much light as younger people.|
|Provide lighting that avoids glare on surfaces of walls, reading materials, and so forth.||Elderly patient’s eyes are more sensitive to glare and cataracts diffuse and glare so that the patient has more difficulty with vision.|
|Provide night light for the patient’s room and ensure lighting is adequate for the patient’s needs.||Patient’s eyes may require longer accommodation time to changes in lighting levels. Provision of adequate lighting helps to prevent injury.|
|Provide large print objects and visual aids for teaching.||Assists patient to see larger print and promotes a sense of independence.|
|Provide information about laser surgery.||Laser surgery may be helpful for the wet type of macular degeneration if done early. An approximate of only 20% of patients will have any improvement in visual function if done later.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other ophthalmic nursing care plans: