In this nursing care plan guide are seven (7) nursing diagnosis for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Get to know the nursing interventions, goals and outcomes, assessment tips, and related factors for COPD.
What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation that is due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities, usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases. As with previous editions, the 2018 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) update seeks to provide comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of COPD (Mirza et al., 2018).
COPD is a heterogeneous lung condition characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms of dyspnea, cough, sputum production, and exacerbations due to abnormalities of the airways such as bronchitis and/or alveoli that cause persistent, often progressive, airflow obstruction, such as in emphysema (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
Asthma: Also known as chronic reactive airway disease, asthma is characterized by reversible inflammation and constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, hypersecretion of mucus, and edema. Precipitating factors include allergens, emotional upheaval, cold weather, exercise, chemicals, medications, and viral infections.
Chronic bronchitis: Widespread inflammation of airways with narrowing or blocking of airways, increased production of mucoid sputum and marked cyanosis.
Emphysema: A most severe form of COPD, characterized by recurrent inflammation that damages and eventually destroys alveolar walls to create large blebs or bullae (air spaces) and collapsed bronchioles on expiration (air-trapping).
A diagnosis of COPD should be considered in any client who has dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production, a history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, and/or a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease, but forced spirometry showing the presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7 is mandatory to establish the diagnosis of COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
In the presence of an FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7, the assessment of airflow limitation severity in COPD is based on the post-bronchodilator value of FEV1. The GOLD Grades and Severity of Airflow Obstruction in COPD staging are as follows:
- GOLD 1: Mild (FEV1 >80% predicted)
- GOLD 2: Moderate (50% ≤ FEV1 <80% predicted)
- GOLD 3: Severe 30% ≤ FEV1 <50% predicted)
- GOLD 4: Very severe (FEV1 <30% predicted)
COPD results from gene(G)-environment(E) interactions occurring over the lifetime(T) of the individual (GETomics) that can damage the lungs and/or alter their normal development or aging processes. Appropriate and earlier diagnosis of COPD can have a very significant public-health impact.
Nursing care planning for clients diagnosed with COPD involves the introduction of a treatment regimen to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Most clients diagnosed with COPD receive outpatient treatment, and the nurse should develop a teaching plan to help them comply with the therapy and understand the nature of this chronic disease.
Here are seven (7) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnoses (NDx) for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
Nursing Care Plans
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Risk for Infection
- Deficient Knowledge
- Activity Intolerance
- Other Possible Nursing Diagnosis
Ineffective Airway Clearance
Common to many pulmonary diseases is bronchospasm which reduces the caliber of the small bronchi and may cause difficulty in breathing, stasis of secretions, and infection. Mucous gland hyperplasia is the histologic hallmark of chronic bronchitis. Airway structural changes include atrophy, focal squamous metaplasia, ciliary abnormalities, variable amounts of airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, inflammation, and bronchial wall thickening. These changes cause airflow limitation by allowing airway walls to deform and narrow the airway lumen (Mosenifar & Oppenheimer, 2022).
May be related to
- Increased production of secretions; retained secretions; thick, viscous secretions
- Allergic airways
- Hyperplasia of bronchial walls
- Decreased energy/fatigue
Possibly evidenced by
- Statement of difficulty breathing
- Changes in depth/rate of respirations, use of accessory muscles
- Abnormal breath sounds, e.g., wheezes, rhonchi, crackles
- Cough (persistent), with/without sputum production
- The client will maintain airway patency with breath sounds clear.
- The client will demonstrate behaviors to improve airway clearance, e.g., cough effectively and expectorate secretions.
Nursing Assessment and Rationales
1. Assess and monitor respirations and breath sounds, noting rate and sounds (tachypnea, stridor, crackles, wheezes). Note the inspiratory and expiratory ratio.
Tachypnea is usually present to some degree and may be pronounced on admission or during stress or concurrent acute infectious process. Respirations may be shallow and rapid, with prolonged expiration in comparison to inspiration. Wheezing can be frequently heard on forced and unforced expiration with diffusely decreased breath sounds. Additionally, coarse crackles beginning with inspiration may be heard (Mosenifar & Oppenheimer, 2022).
2. Auscultate breath sounds. Note adventitious breath sounds (wheezes, crackles, rhonchi).
Some degree of bronchospasm is present with obstructions in the airway and may or may not be manifested in adventitious breath sounds such as scattered, moist crackles (bronchitis); faint sounds, with expiratory wheezes (emphysema); or absent breath sounds (severe asthma). Inspiratory or expiratory wheezes and chest tightness are symptoms that may vary between days, and over the course of a single day. Alternatively, widespread inspiratory or expiratory wheezes can be present during auscultation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
3. Note the presence and degree of dyspnea for reports of “air hunger” or breathlessness.
Respiratory dysfunction is variable depending on the underlying process such as infection, allergic reaction, and the stage of chronicity in a client with established COPD. Chronic dyspnea is the most characteristic symptom of COPD. A dyspnea questionnaire, the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale was the first questionnaire developed to measure breathlessness, which is a key symptom in many clients diagnosed with COPD, although it is often recognized (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
4. Observe signs and symptoms of infections.
Acute exacerbations of COPD are common and usually occur due to a trigger, such as bacterial or viral pneumonia or environmental irritants. There is an increase in inflammation and air trapping often requiring corticosteroid and bronchodilator treatment (Agarwal, 2022).
5. Monitor and graph serial ABGs, pulse oximetry, and chest x-ray.
This establishes a baseline for monitoring the progression or regression of disease process complications. ABG analysis provides the best clues as to the acuteness and severity of disease exacerbation. Frontal and lateral chest radiographs of clients diagnosed with emphysema reveal signs of hyperinflation, including flattening of the diaphragm and increased retrosternal air space. And a long, narrow heart shadow. Chronic bronchitis is associated with increased bronchovascular markings and cardiomegaly (Mosenifar & Oppenheimer, 2022).
6. Observe for persistent, hacking, or moist cough.
Chronic cough is often the first symptom of COPD and is frequently discounted by the client as an expected consequence of smoking and/or environmental exposures. Initially, the cough may be intermittent, but subsequently, it may be present every day, often throughout the day. Chronic cough in COPD may be productive or unproductive. In some cases, significant airflow obstruction may develop without the presence of a cough (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
1. Educate the client regarding smoking cessation.
A significant proportion of people with COPD continue to smoke despite knowing that they have a disease, and this behavior has a negative impact on the prognosis and progression of the disease. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD. If effective resources and time are dedicated to smoking cessation, long-term quit success rates of up to 25% can be achieved (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
2. Provide an incentive spirometer for the measurement of airflow obstruction.
Forced spirometry is the most reproducible and objective measurement of airflow obstruction. It is a non-invasive, reproducible, cheap, and readily available test. Good quality spirometry measurement is possible in any healthcare setting and all healthcare workers who care for people with COPD should have access to spirometry. The spirometry criterion for airflow obstruction selected by GOLD remains a post-bronchodilator ratio of FEV1/FVC <0.7 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
3. Assist the client to assume a position of comfort (elevate the head of the bed, have the client lean on an overbed table, or sit on edge of the bed).
Elevation of the head of the bed facilitates respiratory function by use of gravity; however, the client in severe distress will seek the position that most eases breathing. Supporting arms and legs with a table, pillows, and so on helps reduce muscle fatigue and can aid chest expansion.
4. Keep environmental pollution to a minimum such as dust, smoke, and feather pillows, according to the individual situation.
Precipitators of an allergic type of respiratory reaction that can trigger or exacerbate the onset of an acute episode. COPD does occur in individuals who have never smoked. In developing countries, the use of biomass fuels for indoor cooking and heating is likely to be a major contributor to the worldwide prevalence of COPD. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may be a factor in COPD clients with diabetes and asthma (Mosenifar & Oppenheimer, 2022).
5. Encourage abdominal or pursed-lip breathing exercises.
This provides the client with some means to cope with or control dyspnea and reduce air trapping. Breathing exercises, as a self-management intervention strategy, are complex and diverse. They have been reported to not only effectively improve the strength and endurance of respiratory muscles and correct abnormal chest and abdomen movements but they also reduce dyspnea and pulmonary dynamic hyperinflation (Li et al., 2020).
6. Assist with measures to improve the effectiveness of cough effort.
Cough can be persistent but ineffective, especially if the client is elderly, acutely ill, or debilitated. Coughing is most effective in an upright or in a head-down position after chest percussion. Effective or controlled coughing has just enough force to loosen and carry mucus through the airways without causing them to narrow and collapse. This saves energy for clients diagnosed with COPD (Cleveland Clinic, 2018).
7. Increase fluid intake to 3000 mL per day within cardiac tolerance. Provide warm or tepid liquids. Recommend the intake of fluids between, instead of during, meals.
Hydration helps decrease the viscosity of secretions, facilitating expectoration. Using warm liquids may decrease bronchospasm. Fluids during meals can increase gastric distension and pressure on the diaphragm.
8. Demonstrate effective coughing and deep-breathing techniques.
Not all coughs are effective in clearing excess mucus from the lungs. Explosive or uncontrolled coughing causes airways to collapse and spasm, trapping the mucus. To cough effectively, the client should be sitting on a chair and leaning forward slightly. Both arms should be folded across the abdomen and a slow inhalation through the nose is done. The client should cough two to three times through a slightly open mouth. Coughs should be short and sharp (Cleveland Clinic, 2018).
9. Assist the client to turn every two hours. If ambulatory, allow the client to ambulate as tolerated.
Movement aids in mobilizing secretions to facilitate the clearing of airways. Aerobic activities such as walking can help improve cardiorespiratory fitness by strengthening large muscle groups in the body. Although exercise does not directly improve lung function, it can help strengthen the muscles which helps build up the client’s endurance level (Leader, 2022).
10. Suction secretions as needed.
Suctioning clear secretions that obstruct the airway, therefore, improves oxygenation. Using bronchoscopy to remove sputum is an effective way during invasive ventilation in respiratory failure clients with advanced exacerbation of COPD. Study shows that bronchoscopy sputum suction presents more encouraging results than negative pressure suction with a low mortality rate (Qiao et al., 2018).
11. Demonstrate chest physiotherapies, such as bronchial tapping when in cough, and proper postural drainage.
These techniques will prevent possible aspiration and prevent any untoward complications. Postural drainage and deep breathing-coughing exercises, which are part of the pulmonary rehabilitation program in the care and management of COPD, are effective in increasing oxygen saturation, triFlo volume, and pulmonary function tests (Arik & Cevik, 2021).
12. Administer medications as prescribed.
- 12.1. Bronchodilators
Bronchodilators are medications that increase FEV1 and/or change other spirometry variables. They act by altering airway smooth muscle tone and the improvements in expiratory flow reflect the widening of the airways rather than changes in lung elastic recoil. Bronchodilators tend to reduce dynamic hyperinflation at rest and during exercise and improve exercise performance (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
- 12.2. Antimuscarinic drugs
Antimuscarinic drugs block the bronchoconstrictor effects of acetylcholine on M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in the airway smooth muscles. Short-acting antimuscarinics (SAMAs), such as ipratropium and oxitropium, also block the inhibitory neural receptor M2, which potentially can cause vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), such as tiotropium, aclidinium, glycopyrronium bromide, and umeclidinium have prolonged binding to M3 receptors, with faster dissociation from M2 muscarinic receptors, thus prolonging the duration of bronchodilator effect (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022).
- 12.3. Mucolytics
In COPD clients, regular treatment with mucolytics such as carbocysteine and N-acetylcysteine may reduce exacerbations and modestly improve health status (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2022). Mucolytic agents reduce sputum viscosity and improve secretion clearance. When used as an inhalational therapy, N-acetylcysteine should be administered with a bronchodilator in order to counteract the potential induction of bronchospasm (Mosenifar & Oppenheimer, 2022).
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
Ackley and Ladwig’s Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
We love this book because of its evidence-based approach to nursing interventions. This care plan handbook uses an easy, three-step system to guide you through client assessment, nursing diagnosis, and care planning. Includes step-by-step instructions showing how to implement care and evaluate outcomes, and help you build skills in diagnostic reasoning and critical thinking.
Nursing Care Plans – Nursing Diagnosis & Intervention (10th Edition)
Includes over two hundred care plans that reflect the most recent evidence-based guidelines. New to this edition are ICNP diagnoses, care plans on LGBTQ health issues and on electrolytes and acid-base balance.
NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023
The definitive guide to nursing diagnoses is reviewed and approved by the NANDA International. In this new version of a pioneering text, all introductory chapters have been rewritten to provide nurses with the essential information they need to comprehend assessment, its relationship to diagnosis and clinical reasoning, and the purpose and application of taxonomic organization at the bedside. A total of 46 new nursing diagnoses and 67 amended nursing diagnostics are presented.
Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions, and Rationales
Quick-reference tool includes all you need to identify the correct diagnoses for efficient patient care planning. The sixteenth edition includes the most recent nursing diagnoses and interventions from NANDA-I 2021-2023 and an alphabetized listing of nursing diagnoses covering more than 400 disorders.
Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care
Identify interventions to plan, individualize, and document care for more than 800 diseases and disorders. Only in the Nursing Diagnosis Manual will you find for each diagnosis…. subjectively and objectively – sample clinical applications, prioritized action/interventions with rationales – a documentation section, and much more!
All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource – E-Book: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health
Includes over 100 care plans for medical-surgical, maternity/OB, pediatrics, and psychiatric and mental health. Interprofessional “patient problems” focus familiarizes you with how to speak to patients.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database MUST READ!
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:
- Asthma | 9 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Bronchiolitis | 7 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) | 7 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) | 7 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Cystic Fibrosis | 6 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Hemothorax, Pneumothorax, and Pleural Effusion | 5 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Influenza (Flu) | 6 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Lung Cancer | 7 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Mechanical Ventilation & Endotracheal Intubation | 10 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Drowning (Submersion Injury) | 7 Care Plans UPDATED!
- Pneumonia | 11 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Embolism | 4 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Tuberculosis | 5 Care Plans
- Tracheostomy | 5 Care Plans
References and Sources
References and recommended sources for this care plan guide for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):
- Ackley, B. J. (2008). Evidence-based nursing care guidelines: Medical-surgical interventions. Elsevier Health Sciences.
- Agarwal, A. (2022, August 8). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – StatPearls. NCBI. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
- Ambrosino, N., & Bertella, E. (2018, September). Lifestyle interventions in prevention and comprehensive management of COPD. Breathe, 14(3).
- American Lung Association. (2018, December 4). Clean Hands, Healthy Lungs. American Lung Association. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Arik, S., & Cevik, K. (2021, December). Effect of Postural Drainage and Deep Breathing-Cough Exercises on Oxygen Saturation, Triflo Volume and Pulmonary Function Test in Patients with COPD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 12(4).
- Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. H. (2009). Medical-surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (Vol. 1). A. M. Keene (Ed.). Saunders Elsevier.
- Brunner, L. S., & Suddarth, D. S. (2004). Medical surgical nursing (Vol. 2123). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Carlson, M. L., Ivnik, M. A., Dierkhising, R. A., O’Byrne, M. M., & Vickers, K. S. (2006). A learning needs assessment of patients with COPD. Medsurg Nursing, 15(4).
- Channa, S., Gale, N., Lai, E., Hall, L., Quinn, M., & Turner, A. M. (2021, March). Colour vision deficiency and sputum colour charts in COPD patients: an exploratory mixed-method study. Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, 31(13).
- Cleveland Clinic. (2018, September 14). Controlled Coughing for COPD Patients. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
- Cleveland Clinic. (2018, September 14). COPD: Nutrition Tips, How to Boost Appetite. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Collins, P. F., Yang, I. A., Chang, Y.-C., & Vaughan, A. (2019, October 17). Nutritional support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): an evidence update. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2016). Nurse’s pocket guide: Diagnoses, prioritized interventions, and rationales. FA Davis.
- Ediboglu, O. (2021). Mechanical Ventilation for Patients with COPD. In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-A Current Conspectus. IntechOpen.
- Erdogan, T., Karakaya, G., & Kalyoncu, A. F. (2019, January 31). The Frequency and Risk Factors for Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Adult Asthma Patients Using Inhaled Corticosteroids. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Gau, J.-T., Acharya, U. H., Khan, M. S., & Kao, T.-C. (2015, April 10). Risk factors associated with lower defecation frequency in hospitalized older adults: a case-control study. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). (2022). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Pocket Guide to COPD Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD).
- Gloeckl, R., Schneeberger, T., Jarosch, I., & Kenn, K. (2018, February 23). Pulmonary Rehabilitation and Exercise Training in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2016). Nursing Care Plans: Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes. Elsevier Health Sciences.
- Hernández, A. (2022). Tactile Fremitus: What Is It, How Is It Assessed, Uses, and More. Osmosis. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
- Hogea, S.-P., Tudorache, E., Fildan, A. P., Fira-Mladinescu, O., Marc, M., & Oancea, C. (2019, December 08). Risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. The Clinical Respiratory Journal, 14(3), 183-197.
- Karger, S. (2020, April 9). Effectiveness of Energy Conservation Techniques in Patients with COPD. NCBI. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- Keogh, E., & Williams, E. M. (2021, January). Managing malnutrition in COPD: A review. Respiratory Medicine, 176.
- Leader, D. (2022, February 24). The Benefits of Walking for People With COPD. Verywell Health. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
- Li, J., Liu, W., Ding, X., Wang, W., & Li, K. (2020, December 08). Breathing exercises in people with COPD: A realist review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77(4), 1698-1715.
- Mete, B., Pehlivan, E., Gülbas, G., & Günen, H. (2018, October 11). Prevalence of malnutrition in COPD and its relationship with the parameters related to disease severity. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Mirza, S., Clay, R. D., Koslow, M. A., & Scanlon, P. D. (2018, October). COPD Guidelines: A Review of the 2018 GOLD Report. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 93(10), 1488-1502.
- Moorhouse, M. F., Murr, A. C., & Doenges, M. E. (2010). Nursing Care Plans: Guidelines for Individualizing Client Care Across the Life Span. F.A. Davis Company.
- Mosenifar, Z., & Oppenheimer, J. J. (2022, June 3). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. Medscape Reference. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
- Nguyen, H. T., Collins, P. F., Pavey, T. G., Nguyen, N. V., Pham, T. D., & Gallegos, D. L. (2019, January 14). Nutritional status, dietary intake, and health-related quality of life in outpatients with COPD. NCBI. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- O’Toole, J., Krishnan, M., Riekert, K., & Eakin, M. N. (2022). Understanding barriers to and strategies for medication adherence in COPD: a qualitative study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 22(98).
- Pedersen, P. U., Uhrenfeldt, L., & Larsen, P. (2022, February 26). Oral hygiene in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a scoping review protocol. JBI Evidence Synthesis. Retrieved November 20, 2022.
- Qiao, Z., Yu, J., Yu, K., & Zhang, M. (2018, August 3). The benefit of daily sputum suction via bronchoscopy in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with ventilators: A randomized controlled trial. NCBI.
- Shah, A., Ayas, N., Tan, W.-C., Malhotra, A., Kimoff, J., Kaminska, M., Aaron, S. D., & Jen, R. (2020, January 10). Sleep Quality and Nocturnal Symptoms in a Community-Based COPD Cohort. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 17(1), 40-48.
- Thorat, Y. T., Salvi, S. S., & Kodgule, R. R. (2017). Peak flow meter with a questionnaire and mini-spirometer to help detect asthma and COPD in real-life clinical practice: a cross-sectional study. Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, 27(32).
- Vendettuoli, V., Veneroni, C., Zannin, E., Mercadante, D., Matassa, P., Pedotti, A., Colnaghi, M., Dellaca, R.L., & Mosca, F. (2014). Positional Effects on Lung Mechanics of Ventilated Preterm Infants with Acute and Chronic Lung Disease. Pediatric Pulmonology.
- Yang, H., Wang, H., Du, L., Wang, Y., Wang, X., & Zhang, R. (2019, February 22). Disease knowledge and self-management behavior of COPD patients in China. NCBI. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- Yentes, J. M., Fallahtafti, F., Denton, W., & Rennard, S. I. (2020, April 17). COPD Patients Have a Restricted Breathing Pattern That Persists with Increased Metabolic Demands. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 17(3), 245-252.
First published on July 14, 2013. With updates and contributions by M. Belleza, R.N.
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