9 Parkinson’s Disease Nursing Care Plans

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Parkinson’s disease, or paralysis agitans,is a progressing neurologic movement disorder that eventually leads to disability. It occurs after the age of 50 and increases in incidence with age. The disease affects more men than women and it’s the fourth most common neurodegenerative disease, with 50,000 new cases reported each year in the United States.

Parkinson’s disease is associated with decreased levels of dopamine resulting from destruction of pigmented neuronal cells in the substantia nigra in the basal ganglia region of the brain. Neuronal pathways project from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum, where neurotransmitters are key to the control of complex body movements. The loss of dopamine stores in areas of the brain results in more excitatory neurotransmitters than inhibitory neurotransmitters, leading to an imbalance that affects voluntary movement.

Nursing Care Plans

The nursing goals for patients with Parkinson’s Disease include improving functional mobility, maintaining independence in performing ADLs, achieving optimal bowel elimination, attaining and maintaining acceptable nutritional status, achieving effective communication, and developing positive coping mechanisms.

Here are nine (9) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis for Parkinson’s Disease:

  1. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  2. Disturbed Thought Process
  3. Impaired Verbal Communication
  4. Impaired Physical Mobility
  5. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
  6. Impaired Swallowing
  7. Risk for Injury
  8. Ineffective Coping
  9. Deficient Knowledge
  10. Other Nursing Care Plans
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Risk for Injury

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Risk for Injury

May be related to

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • dementia
  • lack of awareness of environmental hazards
  • poor judgement
  • medications
  • hallucinations
  • choking
  • bradykinesia
  • akinesia

Risk factors

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  • confusion
  • disorientation
  • malnutrition
  • altered mobility
  • skin breakdown
  • agitation
  • physical discomfort
  • choking
  • wounds
  • falls
  • wandering
  • involuntary movements
  • loss of postural adjustment
  • loss of balance
  • loss of arm swinging movement
  • difficulty initiating movement
  • shuffling gait
  • slowness of movement
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • activity intolerance
  • polypharmacy
  • hallucinations
  • tremors
  • muscle rigidity

Desired Outcomes

  • Patient will remain safe from environmental hazards resulting from cognitive impairment.
  • Family will ensure safety precautions are instituted and followed.
  • Patient will remain in a safe environment with no complications or injuries obtained.
  • Family will be able to identify and eliminate hazards in the patient’s environment.
Nursing InterventionsRationale
Assess ambulation and movement.Aids in planning of interventions.
Instruct patient to swing arms and lift heels during ambulation.These actions assist gait and prevent falls.
Teach patient to turn in wide arcs.To prevent the crossing of one leg over the other, which could cause a fall.
Remind patient to maintain an upright posture and look up when walking.Stooped posture may cause the patient to collide with objects.
Instruct a wide-based gaitTo improve balance.
Teach range of motion exercises and stretching to be performed daily.Exercising increases flexibility and improves strength and balance.
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Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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See also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:

Other nursing care plans related to neurological disorders:

Matt Vera is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2009 and is currently working as a full-time writer and editor for Nurseslabs. During his time as a student, he knows how frustrating it is to cram on difficult nursing topics. Finding help online is nearly impossible. His situation drove his passion for helping student nurses by creating content and lectures that are easy to digest. Knowing how valuable nurses are in delivering quality healthcare but limited in number, he wants to educate and inspire nursing students. As a nurse educator since 2010, his goal in Nurseslabs is to simplify the learning process, break down complicated topics, help motivate learners, and look for unique ways of assisting students in mastering core nursing concepts effectively.
  • This website has helped me so much with nursing interventions and now is helping me come up with interventions and understanding why because of the rationale

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