Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord as a result of either bacteria, viral or fungal infection. Bacterial infections may be caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis). Those at greatest risk for this disease are infants between 6 and 12 months of age with most cases occurring between 1 month and 5 years of age. The most common route of infection is vascular dissemination from an infection in the nasopharynx or sinuses, or one implanted as a result of wounds, skull fracture, lumbar puncture, or surgical procedure. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is caused by a variety of viral agents and usually associated with measles, mumps, herpes, or enteritis. This form of meningitis is self-limiting and treated symptomatically for 3 to 10 days.
Treatment includes hospitalization to differentiate between the two types of meningitis, isolation and management of symptoms, and prevention of complications.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care plan goals for a child with meningitis include attain adequate cerebral tissue perfusion through reduction in ICP, maintain normal body temperature, protection against injury, enhance coping measures, accurate perception of environmental stimuli, restoring normal cognitive functions and prevention of complications.
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cerebral)
- Acute Pain
- Disturbed Sensory Perception
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cerebral)
May be related to
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Cerebral edema
Possibly evidenced by
- Delirium, hallucinations
- Child will have vital signs return to normal; child is alerted and oriented: motor, cognitive, and sensory function are within acceptable parameters for the child’s age; normal specific urine gravity.
|Monitor vital signs and neurological status.||Increasing systolic blood pressure accompanied by decreasing diastolic blood pressure is an ominous sign of increased ICP.|
|Observe for any signs of increased intracranial pressure.||Signs and symptoms that indicate an increase in ICP include headache, drowsiness, decreased alertness, vomiting, bulging fontanelle (infants).|
|Assess for nuchal rigidity, twitching, increased restlessness, and irritability.||These are signs of meningeal irritation, which may happen because of infection.|
|Observe for increasing restlessness, moaning, and guarding behaviors.||These nonverbal cues may indicate increasing ICP or pain. Unrelieved pain can potentiate increased ICP.|
|Monitor arterial blood gases (ABGs) and oxygen saturation.||Determines presence of hypoxia and indicates therapy needs.|
|Maintain head or neck in midline position, provide small pillow for support.||Turning head to one side compresses the jugular veins and inhibits venous drainage, thereby increasing ICP.|
|During reposition, avoid bending of the knee and pushing heels against the mattress.||These activities increase intra-thoracic and intrabdominal pressures, thereby increasing ICP.|
|Provide comfort measures and Decrease external stimuli such as quiet environment, soft voice, and gentle touch.||Produces relaxing effect which decreases adverse physiologic response and promotes rest to maintain or lower ICP.|
|Elevate the head of the bed 30°, and avoid neck flexion and hip flexion.||Promotes venous drainage from head, thereby reducing cerebral congestion and edema and risk of increased ICP.|
|Administer oxygen as needed.||Reduces hypoxia which can increase blood volume, promotes cerebral vasodilation and elevate ICP.|
|Administer medications as indicated:|
||Used to treat cerebral edema by promoting cerebral blood flow|
||Used to control seizures related to increased intracranial pressure.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to neurological disorders:
- Alzheimer’s Disease | 15 Care Plans
- Brain Tumor | 3 Care Plans
- Cerebral Palsy | 7 Care Plans
- Cerebrovascular Accident | 12 Care Plans
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome | 6 Care Plans
- Meningitis | 7 Care Plans
- Multiple Sclerosis | 9 Care Plans
- Parkinson’s Disease | 9 Care Plans
- Seizure Disorder | 4 Care Plans
- Spinal Cord Injury | 12 Care Plans