Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord as a result of either bacteria, viral or fungal infection. Bacterial infections may be caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis). Those at greatest risk for this disease are infants between 6 and 12 months of age with most cases occurring between 1 month and 5 years of age. The most common route of infection is vascular dissemination from an infection in the nasopharynx or sinuses, or one implanted as a result of wounds, skull fracture, lumbar puncture, or surgical procedure. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is caused by a variety of viral agents and usually associated with measles, mumps, herpes, or enteritis. This form of meningitis is self-limiting and treated symptomatically for 3 to 10 days.
Treatment includes hospitalization to differentiate between the two types of meningitis, isolation and management of symptoms, and prevention of complications.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care plan goals for a child with meningitis include attain adequate cerebral tissue perfusion through reduction in ICP, maintain normal body temperature, protection against injury, enhance coping measures, accurate perception of environmental stimuli, restoring normal cognitive functions and prevention of complications.
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cerebral)
- Acute Pain
- Disturbed Sensory Perception
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cerebral)
May be related to
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Cerebral edema
Possibly evidenced by
- Delirium, hallucinations
- Child will have vital signs return to normal; child is alerted and oriented: motor, cognitive, and sensory function are within acceptable parameters for the child’s age; normal specific urine gravity.
|Monitor vital signs and neurological status.||Increasing systolic blood pressure accompanied by decreasing diastolic blood pressure is an ominous sign of increased ICP.|
|Observe for any signs of increased intracranial pressure.||Signs and symptoms that indicate an increase in ICP include headache, drowsiness, decreased alertness, vomiting, bulging fontanelle (infants).|
|Assess for nuchal rigidity, twitching, increased restlessness, and irritability.||These are signs of meningeal irritation, which may happen because of infection.|
|Observe for increasing restlessness, moaning, and guarding behaviors.||These nonverbal cues may indicate increasing ICP or pain. Unrelieved pain can potentiate increased ICP.|
|Monitor arterial blood gases (ABGs) and oxygen saturation.||Determines presence of hypoxia and indicates therapy needs.|
|Maintain head or neck in midline position, provide small pillow for support.||Turning head to one side compresses the jugular veins and inhibits venous drainage, thereby increasing ICP.|
|During reposition, avoid bending of the knee and pushing heels against the mattress.||These activities increase intra-thoracic and intrabdominal pressures, thereby increasing ICP.|
|Provide comfort measures and Decrease external stimuli such as quiet environment, soft voice, and gentle touch.||Produces relaxing effect which decreases adverse physiologic response and promotes rest to maintain or lower ICP.|
|Elevate the head of the bed 30°, and avoid neck flexion and hip flexion.||Promotes venous drainage from head, thereby reducing cerebral congestion and edema and risk of increased ICP.|
|Administer oxygen as needed.||Reduces hypoxia which can increase blood volume, promotes cerebral vasodilation and elevate ICP.|
|Administer medications as indicated:|
||Used to treat cerebral edema by promoting cerebral blood flow|
||Used to control seizures related to increased intracranial pressure.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023
The definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA International. In this new version of a pioneering text, all introductory chapters have been rewritten to provide nurses with the essential information they need to comprehend assessment, its relationship to diagnosis and clinical reasoning, and the purpose and application of taxonomic organization at the bedside. A total of 46 new nursing diagnoses and 67 amended nursing diagnostics are presented.
Ackley and Ladwig’s Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
We love this book because of it’s evidence-based approach to nursing interventions. This care plan handbook uses an easy, three-step system to guide you through client assessment, nursing diagnosis, and care planning. Includes step-by-step instructions show how to implement care and evaluate outcomes, and help you build skills in diagnostic reasoning and critical thinking.
Nursing Care Plans – Nursing Diagnosis & Intervention (10th Edition)
Includes over two hundred care plans that reflect the most recent evidence-based guidelines. New to this edition are ICNP diagnoses, care plans on LGBTQ health issues and on electrolytes and acid-base balance.
Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions, and Rationales
Quick-reference tool includes all you need to identify the correct diagnoses for efficient patient care planning. The sixteenth edition includes the most recent nursing diagnoses and interventions from NANDA-I 2021-2023 and an alphabetized listing of nursing diagnoses covering more than 400 disorders.
Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care
Identify interventions to plan, individualize, and document care for more than 800 diseases and disorders. Only in the Nursing Diagnosis Manual will you find for each diagnosis…. subjectively and objectively – sample clinical applications, prioritized action/interventions with rationales – a documentation section, and much more!
All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource – E-Book: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health
Includes over 100 care plans for medical-surgical, maternity/OB, pediatrics, and psychiatric and mental health. Interprofessional “patient problems” focus familiarizes you with how to speak to patients.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database MUST READ!
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to neurological disorders:
- Alzheimer’s Disease | 15 Care Plans
- Brain Tumor | 3 Care Plans
- Cerebral Palsy | 7 Care Plans
- Cerebrovascular Accident | 12 Care Plans
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome | 6 Care Plans
- Meningitis | 7 Care Plans
- Multiple Sclerosis | 9 Care Plans
- Parkinson’s Disease | 9 Care Plans
- Seizure Disorder | 4 Care Plans
- Spinal Cord Injury | 12 Care Plans