5 Seizure Disorder Nursing Care Plans


In this guide are five nursing diagnosis for seizures nursing care plans including their nursing interventions and nursing assessment. Learn about the goals, related factors of nursing diagnosis and rationale for each nursing intervention for seizure.

What are seizures? 

Seizures are physical findings or changes in behavior caused by uncontrolled electrical firing or discharges from the nerve cells of the cerebral cortex and are characterized by sudden, brief attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity and sensory phenomena. The term “seizure” is often used interchangeably with “convulsion.”

Seizures can be caused by head injuries, brain tumors, lead poisoning, maldevelopment of the brain, genetic and infectious illnesses, and fevers. Sensory symptoms arise from the parietal lobe; motor symptoms arise from the frontal lobe.

Nursing Care Plans

Please note that some diagnostic labels used here are retired and should not be used.

Nursing care plan goals for patients with seizure includes maintaining a patent airway, maintaining safety during an episode, and imparting knowledge and understanding about the condition. The nurse should monitor the patient for signs of toxicity: nystagmus, ataxia, lethargy, dizziness, slurred speech, nausea, and vomiting. It is also the duty of the nurse to provide support to the family and answering questions and correcting misconceptions that surround it.

Here are five nursing diagnosis for seizure nursing care plans: 

  1. Risk for Trauma or Suffocation
  2. Risk for Ineffective Airway Clearance
  3. Situational Low Self-Esteem
  4. Deficient Knowledge
  5. Noncompliance
  6. Other possible nursing care plans

Risk for Trauma or Suffocation

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Risk for Trauma

Risk Factors

The following are the common risk factors:

  • Weakness, balancing difficulties; reduced muscle, hand or eye coordination
  • Poor vision
  • Reduced sensation
  • Cognitive limitations or altered consciousness
  • Loss of large or small muscle coordination
  • Emotional difficulties

Possibly evidenced by

  • Not applicable. A risk diagnosis is not evidenced by signs and symptoms, as the problem has not occurred and nursing interventions are directed at prevention.

Desired Outcomes

Below are the common expected outcomes for seizure nursing care plan:

  • Patient will verbalize understanding of factors that contribute to the possibility of trauma and or suffocation and take steps to correct the situation.
  • Patient will identify actions or measures to take when seizure activity occurs.
  • Patientwill identify and correct potential risk factors in the environment.
  • Patient will demonstrate behaviors, lifestyle changes to reduce risk factors and protect self from injury.
  • Patient will modify environment as indicated to enhance safety.
  • Patient will maintain treatment regimen to control or eliminate seizure activity.
  • Patient will recognize the need for assistance to prevent accidents or injuries.

Nursing Interventions and Rationale

Here are the nursing assessment and interventions for this seizure nursing care plans.

Nursing InterventionsRationale
Nursing Assessment
Determine factors related to the individual situation, as listed in Risk Factors, and extent of risk.Influences the scope and intensity of interventions to manage the threat to safety.
Note client’s age, gender, developmental age, decision-making ability, level of cognition or competence.Affects the client’s ability to protect self and others, and influences the choice of interventions and teaching.
Ascertain knowledge of various stimuli that may precipitate seizure activity.Alcohol, various drugs, and other stimuli (loss of sleep, flashing lights, prolonged television viewing) may increase brain activity, thereby increasing the potential for seizure activity.
Review diagnostic studies or laboratory tests for impairments and imbalances.Such may result in or exacerbate conditions, such as confusion, tetany, pathological fractures, etc.
Therapeutic Interventions
Explore and expound seizure warning signs (if appropriate) and usual seizure pattern. Teach SO to determine and familiarize warning signs and how to care for the patient during and after seizure attack.Enables patient to protect self from injury and recognize changes that require notification of physician and further intervention. Knowing what to do when a seizure occurs can prevent injury or complications and decreases SO’s feelings of helplessness.
Use and pad side rails with the bed in lowest position, or place bed up against wall and pad floor if rails not available or appropriate.Prevents or minimizes injury when seizures (frequent or generalized) occur while the patient is in bed. Note: Most individuals seize in place and if, in the middle of the bed, the individual is unlikely to fall out of bed.
Educate the patient not to smoke except while supervised.May cause burns if the cigarette is accidentally dropped during aura or seizure activity.
Evaluate the need for or provide protective headgear.Use of helmet may provide added protection for individuals who suffer recurrent or severe seizures.
Avoid using thermometers that can cause breakage. Use a tympanic thermometer when necessary to take the temperature.Reduces risk of patient biting and breaking glass thermometer or suffering injury if sudden seizure activity should occur.
Uphold strict bedrest if prodromal signs or aura experienced. Explain the necessity for these actions.Patient may feel restless or need to ambulate or even defecate during aural phase, thereby inadvertently removing self from a safe environment and easy observation. Understanding the importance of providing for own safety needs may enhance patient cooperation.
Do not leave the patient during and after a seizure.Promotes safety measures.
Turn head to side and suction airway as indicated. Insert plastic bite block only if jaw relaxed.Helps maintain airway patency and reduces the risk of oral trauma but should not be “forced” or inserted when teeth are clenched because dental and soft-tissue damage may result. Note: Wooden tongue blades should not be used because they may splinter and break in the patient’s mouth.
Support head, place on soft area or assist to the floor if out of bed. Do not attempt to restrain.Supporting the extremities lessens the risk of physical injury when the patient lacks voluntary muscle control. Note: If the attempt is made to restrain the patient during a seizure, erratic movements may increase, and the patient may injure self or others.
Note pre-seizure activity, presence of aura or unusual behavior, type of seizure activity (location or duration of motor activity, and frequency or recurrence. Note whether the patient fell, expressed vocalizations, drooled, or had automatisms (lip-smacking, chewing, picking at clothes).Helps localize the cerebral area of involvement.
Provide neurological or vital sign check after seizure (level of consciousness, orientation, ability to comply with simple commands, ability to speak; memory of incident; weakness or motor deficits; blood pressure (BP), pulse and respiratory rate).Documents postictal state and time or completeness of recovery to a normal state. May identify additional safety concerns to be addressed.
Reorient patient following seizure activity.Patient may be confused, disoriented, and possibly amnesic after the seizure and need help to regain control and alleviate anxiety.
Allow postictal “automatic” behavior without interfering while providing environmental protection.May display behavior (of a motor or psychic origin) that seems inappropriate or irrelevant for time and place. Attempts to control or prevent activity may result in the patient becoming aggressive or combative.
Investigate reports of pain.May be a result of repetitive muscle contractions or symptom of injury incurred, requiring further evaluation or intervention.
Detect status epilepticus (one tonic-clonic seizure after another in rapid succession).This is a life-threatening emergency that if left untreated could cause metabolic acidosis, hyperthermia, hypoglycemia, arrhythmias, hypoxia, increased intracranial pressure, airway obstruction, and respiratory arrest. Immediate intervention is required to control seizure activity and prevent permanent injury or death. Note: Although absence seizures may become static, they are not usually life-threatening.
Carry out medications as indicated:Specific drug therapy depends on seizure type, with some patients requiring polytherapy or frequent medication adjustments.
  • Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), carbamazepine (Tegretol), clonazepam (Klonopin), valproic acid (Depakene), Divalproex (Depakote), acetazolamide (Diamox), ethotoin (Peganone), methsuximide (Celotin), fosphenytoin (Cerebyx);
AEDs raise the seizure threshold by stabilizing nerve cell membranes, reducing the excitability of the neurons, or through direct action on the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The goal is optimal suppression of seizure activity with the lowest possible dose of a drug and with fewest side effects. Cerebyx reaches therapeutic levels within 24 hr and can be used for nonemergent loading while waiting for other agents to become effective. Note: Some patients require polytherapy or frequent medication adjustments to control seizure activity. This increases the risk of adverse reactions and problems with adherence.
  • Topiramate (Topamax), ethosuximide (Zarontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), gabapentin (Neurontin)
Adjunctive therapy for partial seizures or an alternative for patients when seizures are not adequately controlled by other drugs.
  • Phenobarbital (Luminal)
Potentiates and enhances the effects of AEDs and allows for lower dosage to reduce side effects.
  • Lorazepam (Ativan)
Used to abort status seizure activity because it is shorter acting than Valium and less likely to prolong post-seizure sedation.
  • Diazepam (Valium, Diastat rectal gel)
May be used alone (or in combination with phenobarbital) to suppress status seizure activity. Diastat, a gel, may be administered rectally, even in the home setting, to reduce the frequency of seizures and need for additional medical care.
May be given to restore metabolic balance if a seizure is induced by hypoglycemia or alcohol.
Monitor and document AED drug levels, corresponding side effects, and frequency of seizure activity.A standard therapeutic level may not be optimal for an individual patient if untoward side effects develop or seizures are not controlled.
Monitor CBC, electrolytes, glucose levels.Identifies factors that aggravate or decrease the seizure threshold.
Prepare for surgery or electrode implantation as indicated.Vagal nerve stimulator, magnetic beam therapy, or other surgical intervention (temporal lobectomy) may be done for intractable seizures or well-localized epileptogenic lesions when the patient is disabled and at high risk for serious injury. Success has been reported with gamma-ray radiosurgery for the treatment of multiple seizure activities that have otherwise been difficult to control.

Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023
The definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA International. In this new version of a pioneering text, all introductory chapters have been rewritten to provide nurses with the essential information they need to comprehend assessment, its relationship to diagnosis and clinical reasoning, and the purpose and application of taxonomic organization at the bedside. A total of 46 new nursing diagnoses and 67 amended nursing diagnostics are presented.

Ackley and Ladwig’s Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
We love this book because of it’s evidence-based approach to nursing interventions. This care plan handbook uses an easy, three-step system to guide you through client assessment, nursing diagnosis, and care planning. Includes step-by-step instructions show how to implement care and evaluate outcomes, and help you build skills in diagnostic reasoning and critical thinking.

Nursing Care Plans – Nursing Diagnosis & Intervention (10th Edition)
Includes over two hundred care plans that reflect the most recent evidence-based guidelines. New to this edition are ICNP diagnoses, care plans on LGBTQ health issues and on electrolytes and acid-base balance.

Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions, and Rationales
Quick-reference tool includes all you need to identify the correct diagnoses for efficient patient care planning. The sixteenth edition includes the most recent nursing diagnoses and interventions from NANDA-I 2021-2023 and an alphabetized listing of nursing diagnoses covering more than 400 disorders.

Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care 
Identify interventions to plan, individualize, and document care for more than 800 diseases and disorders. Only in the Nursing Diagnosis Manual will you find for each diagnosis…. subjectively and objectively – sample clinical applications, prioritized action/interventions with rationales – a documentation section, and much more!

All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource – E-Book: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health 
Includes over 100 care plans for medical-surgical, maternity/OB, pediatrics, and psychiatric and mental health. Interprofessional “patient problems” focus familiarizes you with how to speak to patients.

See also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:

Other nursing care plans related to neurological disorders:

References and Sources

The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for seizure disorder:

  • Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
  • Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
  • Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Crocker, J. (1999). Social stigma and self-esteem: Situational construction of self-worth. Journal of experimental social psychology35(1), 89-107. [Link]
  • Kavanagh, A., & McLoughlin, D. M. (2009). Electroconvulsive therapy and nursing care. British journal of nursing18(22), 1370-1370. [Link]
  • Videbeck, S. L. (2010). Psychiatric-mental health nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]

Matt Vera is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2009 and is currently working as a full-time writer and editor for Nurseslabs. During his time as a student, he knows how frustrating it is to cram on difficult nursing topics. Finding help online is nearly impossible. His situation drove his passion for helping student nurses by creating content and lectures that are easy to digest. Knowing how valuable nurses are in delivering quality healthcare but limited in number, he wants to educate and inspire nursing students. As a nurse educator since 2010, his goal in Nurseslabs is to simplify the learning process, break down complicated topics, help motivate learners, and look for unique ways of assisting students in mastering core nursing concepts effectively.
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