Urge Urinary Incontinence is caused by abnormal bladder contractions. Usually, strong muscles termed as sphincters regulate the flow of urine from the bladder. With urge incontinence, the muscles of an “overactive” bladder contract with enough force to override the sphincter muscles of the urethra, which is the tube that takes urine out of the body. Urge incontinence may develop as a result of spinal cord lesions or following pelvic surgery. Central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease may contribute to urge incontinence. Overactivity of the detrusor may be the result of interstitial cystitis, urinary tract infection, or pelvic radiation. Extreme alcohol or caffeine consumption may stimulate urge incontinence. The person may have changes in body image and self-concept following the person’s feelings of shame and embarrassment with loss of control of urinary elimination. This alteration may affect the person’s social interaction and work performance.
Other types of Urinary Incontinence:
- Impaired Urinary Elimination: Dysfunction in urinary elimination.
- Functional Urinary Incontinence: Inability of usually continent person to reach toilet in time to avoid unintentional loss of urine.
- Reflex Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of urine at somewhat predictable intervals when a specific bladder volume is reached.
- Stress Urinary Incontinence: Sudden leakage of urine with activities that increase intraabdominal pressure.
- Urge Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary passage of urine occurring soon after a strong sense of urgency to void.
Here are some factors that may be related to Urge Urinary Incontinence:
- Alcohol intake
- Caffeine intake
- Diuretic use
- Multiple sclerosis
- Parkinson’s disease
- Spinal cord injury
Urge Urinary Incontinence is characterized by the following signs and symptoms:
- Observed or reported inability to reach toilet in time to avoid urine loss
- Reports of urine loss with bladder spasms
- Urinary urgency
Goals and Outcomes
The following are the common goals and expected outcomes for Urge Urinary Incontinence:
- Patient keeps a pattern of predictable voiding.
- Patient has no periods of incontinence.
The following are the comprehensive assessments for Urge Urinary Incontinence:
|Determine the patient’s episodes of incontinence.||Urge incontinence happens when the bladder muscle abruptly contracts. The patient may report feeling the need suddenly to urinate but being unable to get to the bathroom in time.|
|Tell patient to keep a daily diary indicating voiding frequency and patterns.||This information enables the nurse to recognize patterns in voiding. This information will allow for an individualized treatment plan. The patient may be voiding as often as every 2 hours.|
|Take a specimen of urine for culture.||Bladder infection can result in a strong urge to urinate; successful management of a urinary tract infection may reduce or improve incontinence.|
|Observe the results of cystometry.||Diagnostic testing is used to measure bladder pressures and fluid volume during filling, storage, and urination. The results of this test may show the underlying problem leading to urge incontinence.|
The following are the therapeutic nursing interventions for Urge Urinary Incontinence:
|Promote access to toilet facilities, and instruct patient to make scheduled trips to the bathroom.||Scheduled voiding allows for frequent bladder emptying.|
|Give or encourage the use of medications as ordered:||Anticholinergics lessen or block detrusor contractions, thereby reducing occurrence of incontinence. The tricyclics increase serotonin or norepinephrine, which results in relaxation of the bladder wall and increased bladder capacity.|
|Educate the patient about the effects of extreme alcohol and caffeine intake.||These chemicals are known to be bladder irritants. they can increase detrusor overactivity.|
|Aid the patient with developing a bladder training program that includes voiding at scheduled intervals, gradually increasing the time between voidings.||A bladder training program helps increase bladder capacity through regulation of fluid intake, pelvic exercises, and scheduled voiding. A regular schedule of voiding helps decrease detrusor overactivity and increase bladder fluid volume capacity.|
|Educate patient about Kegel exercises.||Kegel exercises are done to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor and can be followed with a minimum of exertion. The repetitious tightening and relaxation of these muscles (10 repetitions four or five times per day) aid some patients regain continence.|
See AlsoOther nursing diagnoses available:
- 500+ Nursing Care Plans
- Activity Intolerance
- Acute Confusion
- Acute Pain
- Caregiver Role Strain
- Chronic Pain
- Deficient Fluid Volume
- Deficient Knowledge
- Disturbed Body Image
- Disturbed Thought Processes
- Excess Fluid Volume
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
- Impaired Physical Mobility
- Impaired Swallowing
- Impaired Tissue (Skin) Integrity
- Impaired Urinary Elimination
- Impaired Verbal Communication
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Ineffective Coping
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion
- Latex Allergy Response
- Risk for Aspiration
- Risk for Falls
- Risk for Infection
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for Unstable Blood Glucose Level
- Self-Care Deficit
- Urinary Retention