Menopause is the cessation of menstruation. It results from a complex syndrome of physiologic changes caused by declining ovarian function. It occurs when the loss of ovarian function results in the permanent termination of menstrual periods. The transitional period leading up to this irreversible event is called the climacteric and is characterized by the decline in the number of ovarian follicles, which also becomes less responsive to gonadotropic hormonal stimulation, and by the decrease of estrogen production by the ovaries until there is not enough to cause the endometrium to grow and shed.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing management of menopause is symptomatic. Estrogen replacement therapy is the most advantageous treatment for symptoms, but it’s not suitable for all patients as it has some adverse effects and risks.
Here are six (6) nursing care plans (NCP) for menopause:
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern
- Sexual Dysfunction
- Risk for Injury
- Stress Urinary Incontinence
- Risk for Infection
- Situational Low Self-Esteem
Disturbed Sleep Pattern
Disturbed Sleep Pattern: Time-limited disruption of sleep (natural periodic suspension of consciousness)
May be related to
- symptoms of menopause
- psychological stress
Possibly evidenced by
- hot flashes
- interrupted sleep
- emotional mood swings
- decreased REM sleep
- Patient will be able to sleep without interruption and will express feelings of being rested.
- Patient will be able to perform techniques to promote sleep.
- Patient will identify factors that prevent restful sleep or disrupt sleep.
- Patient will be able to achieve and maintain an adequate amount of sleep to facilitate maximal functioning.
- Patient will be able to establish a sound sleep pattern.
|Assess patient’s sleep pattern and changes, naps, amount of activity, awakenings and frequency, and patient’s complaints of lack of rest.||Provides information to alleviate sleep deprivation in relation to age-related changes and identify and establish plan of care.|
|Monitor for complaints of pain or discomfort.||Identification of causative factors of frequent awakenings helps facilitate changes in sleep pattern.|
|Provide calm, quiet environment, closing curtains, adjusting lighting, and so forth.||Helps to promote conducive atmosphere for restful sleep. External stimulus may interfere with going to sleep and increase awakenings in elderly patient because sleep is usually of less intensity.|
|Administer medications to promote normal sleep patterns as ordered.||Medications may be required to achieve rest during hospitalization. Hypnotics induce sleep, while tranquilizers reduce anxiety.|
|Instruct the patient to practice slow deep breathing whenever a hot flash starts; instruct also on other relaxation techniques.||Relaxation and deep breathing may help alleviate the discomfort caused by a hot flash.|
|Provide warm drinks, extra cover, warm bath prior to bedtime and so forth.||Ritualistic procedures may prevent breaks in established routines and promote comfort and relaxation prior to sleep.|
|Instruct patient to avoid stimulants like caffeinated drinks, stressful activity, and so forth prior to sleep.||Overstimulation prevents patient from falling asleep.|
|Help patient in relaxation techniques, guided imagery, muscle relaxation, meditation, and so forth.||Relaxation techniques frequently help promote sleep.|
|Instruct patient to avoid alcohol prior to bedtime.||Although alcohol may cause sleepiness, it interrupts sleep later in the night.|
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Genitourinary Care Plans
Care plans related to the reproductive and urinary system disorders:
- Acute Glomerulonephritis | 4 Care Plans
- Acute Renal Failure | 6 Care Plans
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) | 5 Care Plans
- Chronic Renal Failure | 11 Care Plans
- Hemodialysis | 3 Care Plans
- Hysterectomy | 6 Care Plans
- Mastectomy | 14+ Care Plans
- Menopause | 6 Care Plans
- Nephrotic Syndrome | 5 Care Plans
- Peritoneal Dialysis | 6 Care Plans
- Prostatectomy | 6 Care Plans
- Urolithiasis (Renal Calculi) | 4 Care Plans
- Urinary Tract Infection | 6 Care Plans
- Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) | 5 Care Plans
Recommended books and resources:
- Nursing Care Plans: Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes
- Nurse's Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
- Nursing Diagnoses 2015-17: Definitions and Classification
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V-TR)
- Manual of Psychiatric Nursing Care Planning
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans
- Delmar's Maternal-Infant Nursing Care Plans, 2nd Edition
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans