Urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the urinary tract (kidney, bladder, urethra). The majority of UTIs are caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), normally found in the digestive system. Usually, bacteria that enter the urinary tract system are removed by the body before they can cause symptoms. But, in some cases, bacteria overcomes the natural defenses of the body, therefore causes infection.
An infection in the urethra is called urethritis. A bladder infection is called cystitis. Bacteria may ascend up to the ureters to multiply and cause the infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis).
Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections include; fever, chills, a strong, persistent urge to urinate, burning sensation when urinating, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and pelvic pain in women.
The focus of this care plan for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) include relief of pain and discomfort, increased knowledge of preventive measures and treatment regimen, and absence of complications.
Here are six (6) nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnosis for patients with urinary tract infections (UTI):
- Impaired Urinary Elimination
- Acute Pain
- Deficient Knowledge
- Disturbed Sleep Pattern
Deficient Knowledge: Absence or deficiency of cognitive information related to specific topic.
May be related to
- Unfamiliarity with nature and treatment of UTI.
Possibly evidenced by
- Lack of questions.
- Multiple questions.
- Recurrent UTI.
- Verbalizing inaccurate information.
- Client will verbalizes knowledge of causes and treatment of UTI, controls risk factors, and completes medical treatment of UTI.
|Explain to the client about UTI risk factors, prevention, and treatment.||Frequent recurrences of UTI may indicate that the client has no understanding of the disease and its management.|
|Encouraged the client to finish all prescribed antibiotics, even if symptoms resolve.||In the first few days of antibiotic therapy, urinary symptoms of burning, frequency, and urgency usually resolve. However, Not finishing the antibiotic on the prescribed time will make the bacteria grow and multiply again.|
|Encouraging the reporting of signs and symptoms of recurrence.||1 to 2 weeks after completing the antibiotic therapy is a common time frame for the signs and symptoms to recur.|
|Teach the client about the importance of preventing urinary tract infection.||The goal of client teaching is to resolve the current infection and prevent recurrence.|
|Bacteria in the bath water may enter the urethra.|
|This will help in preventing the migration of the pathogen in the urethral opening and, in women, the vaginal opening.|
|Completely emptying the bladder prevents bladder distention and compromised blood supply to the bladder wall. These predispose the client to UTI.|
|Tampons are advised during the menstruation rather than sanitary napkins because they keep the bladder opening area drier, hence limiting the growth of bacteria.|
|Such fabrics can accumulate moisture and can provide an environment for bacterial growth. Cotton fabric and loose fitting clotting are more encouraged.|
|Periodic urine cultures identify the effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy.|
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