Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a specific type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels up into your kidneys. A kidney infection requires prompt medical attention. If not treated properly, a kidney infection can permanently damage your kidneys or spread to your bloodstream and cause a life-threatening infection. Kidney infection treatment usually includes antibiotics and often requires hospitalization (Mayo Clinic).
This post contains 4 nursing care plans regarding acute pyelonephritis.
Ineffective Renal Tissue Perfusion
Capillaries are an integral part of the nephrons which are responsible for oxygenation. When the nephrons are destroyed or impaired such as in the progress of a renal disease like Pyelonephritis, there will be progressive decline in kidney perfusion. This hypoperfusion affects the kidney’s production of erythropoietin factor responsible for the production of RBC. A decreased in RBC levelproduction will then result to decreased oxygen supply to the kidney
In response to infection, inflammatory mediators and neutrophils are activated which will travel to the infected area via increased blood flow and chemotaxis. WBCs, particularly neutrophils, migrate into the site to perform phagocytosis. Neutrophils immediately die after performing their function, and release pyrogens. Pyrogens stimulate fever by increasing heat production and conservation. Fever stimulates immune system activity and kills microorganisms
As the chemical mediators are released in response to infection, increased renal blood flow and infiltration of WBCs occur in the infected area. These stretch the renal capsule which irritates the nerve endings in the area, causing the activation of pain receptors. The location of the pain is attributed to the retroperitoneal anatomic site of the kidney.
Impaired Urinary Elimination
The entry of microorganisms in the urinary tract triggers the defenses built in our urinary system. One of these is an increase in urine production. The urine flow flushes / washes away microorganisms present in the tract. When the bladder detects the microbes, bladder wall irritation occurs. The bladder contracts its smooth muscles to eradicate the pathogens along with the urine.
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