Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious secondary immunodeficiency disorder caused by the retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both diseases are characterized by the progressive destruction of cell-mediated (T-cell) immunity with subsequent effects on humoral (B-cell) immunity because of the pivotal role of the CD4+helper T cells in immune reactions. Immunodeficiency makes the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections, unusual cancers, and other abnormalities.
AIDS results from the infection of HIV which has two forms: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both forms have the same model of transmission and similar opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, but studies indicate that HIV-2 develops more slowly and presents with milder symptoms than HIV-1. Transmission occurs through contact with infected blood or body fluids and is associated with identifiable high-risk behaviors.
Persons with HIV/AIDS have been found to fall into five general categories: (1) homosexual or bisexual men, (2) injection drug users, (3) recipients of infected blood or blood products, (4) heterosexual partners of a person with HIV infection, and (5) children born to an infected mother. The rate of infection is most rapidly increasing among minority women and is increasingly a disease of persons of color.
Nursing Care Plans
There is no cure yet for either HIV or AIDS. However, significant advances have been made to help patients control signs and symptoms and impair disease progression.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Acute/Chronic Pain
- Impaired Skin Integrity
- Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
- Disturbed Thought Process
- Social Isolation
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Infection
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
May be related to
- Immunologic deficit and presence of lesion-causing pathogens, e.g., Candida, herpes, KS
- Dehydration, malnutrition
- Ineffective oral hygiene
- Side effects of drugs, chemotherapy
Possibly evidenced by
- Open ulcerated lesions, vesicles
- Oral pain/discomfort
- Stomatitis; leukoplakia, gingivitis, carious teeth
- Display intact mucous membranes, which are pink, moist, and free of inflammation/ulcerations.
- Demonstrate techniques to restore/maintain integrity of oral mucosa.
|Assess mucous membranes and document all oral lesions. Note reports of pain, swelling, difficulty with chewing and swallowing.||Edema, open lesions, and crusting on oral mucous membranes and throat may cause pain and difficulty with chewing and swallowing.|
|Provide oral care daily and after food intake, using soft toothbrush, non abrasive toothpaste, non alcohol mouthwash, floss, and lip moisturizer.||Alleviates discomfort, prevents acid formation associated with retained food particles, and promotes feeling of well-being.|
|Rinse oral mucosal lesions with saline and dilute hydrogen peroxide or baking soda solutions.||Reduces spread of lesions and encrustations from candidiasis, and promotes comfort.|
|Suggest use of sugarless gum and candy.||Stimulates flow of saliva to neutralize acids and protect mucous membranes.|
|Plan diet to avoid salty, spicy, abrasive, and acidic foods or beverages. Check for temperature tolerance of foods. Offer cool or cold smooth foods.||Abrasive foods may open healing lesions. Open lesions are painful and aggravated by salt, spice, acidic foods or beverages. Extreme cold or heat can cause pain to sensitive mucous membranes.|
|Encourage oral intake of at least 2500 mL/day.||Maintains hydration and prevents drying of oral cavity.|
|Encourage patient to refrain from smoking.||Smoke is drying and irritating to mucous membranes.|
|Obtain culture specimens of lesions.||Reveals causative agents and identifies appropriate therapies.|
|Administer medications, as indicated:|
||Specific drug choice depends on particular infecting organism(s) like Candida.|
||Effective in treatment of oral lesions due to recurrent stomatitis.|
|Refer for dental consultation, if appropriate.||May require additional therapy to prevent dental losses.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans related to communicable and infectious diseases: