Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substance found in the blood. Plaque narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow to your heart muscle. It also makes it more likely that blood clots will form in your arteries. Blood clots can partially or completely block blood flow. When the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked, oxygen-rich blood can’t reach the heart muscle. This can cause angina or a heart attack. Without quick treatment, a heart attack can lead to serious problems and even death.
The classic symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD) is angina—pain caused by loss of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardial tissue because of inadequate coronary blood flow. In most but not all patients presenting with angina, CAD symptoms are caused by significant atherosclerosis. Unstable angina is sometimes grouped with MI under the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.
Angina has three major forms:
- stable: precipitated by effort, of short duration, and easily relieved,
- unstable: longer lasting, more severe, may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin; may also be new onset of pain with exertion or recent acceleration in severity of pain.
- variant: chest pain at rest with ECG changes due to coronary artery spasm.
Nursing Care Plans
CAD is the most common type of heart disease. Lifestyle changes, medicines, and/or medical procedures can effectively prevent or treat CAD in most people. Other names for coronary artery disease are atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hardening of the arteries, heart disease, ischemic heart disease and narrowing of arteries.
- Acute Pain
- Deficient Knowledge
- Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output
- Other possible nursing care plans
May be related to
- Situational crises
- Threat to self-concept (altered image/abilities)
- Underlying pathophysiological response
- Threat to or change in health status (disease course that can lead to further compromise, debility, even death)
- Negative self-talk
Possibly evidenced by
- Expressed concern regarding changes in life events
- Increased tension/helplessness
- Apprehension, uncertainty, restlessness
- Association of diagnosis with loss of healthy body image, loss of place/influence
- View of self as noncontributing member of family/society
- Fear of death as an imminent reality
- Verbalize awareness of feelings of anxiety and healthy ways to deal with them.
- Report anxiety is reduced to a manageable level.
- Express concerns about effect of disease on lifestyle, position within family and society.
- Demonstrate effective coping strategies/problem-solving skills.
|Explain purpose of tests and procedures: stress testing.||Reduces anxiety attributable to fear of unknown diagnosis and prognosis.|
|Promote expression of feelings and fears. Let patient/SO know these are normal reactions.||Unexpressed feelings may create internal turmoil and affect self-image. Verbalization of concerns reduces tension, verifies level of coping, and facilitates dealing with feelings. Presence of negative self-talk can increase level of anxiety and may contribute to exacerbation of angina attacks.|
|Encourage family and friends to treat patient as before.||Reassures patient that role in the family and business has not been altered.|
|Tell patient the medical regimen has been designed to limit future attacks and increase cardiac stability.||Encourages patient to test symptom control, to increase confidence in medical program, and to integrate abilities into perceptions of self.|
|Administer sedatives, tranquilizers, as indicated.||May be desired to help patient relax until physically able to reestablish adequate coping strategies.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans for cardiovascular system disorders:
- Angina Pectoris (Coronary Artery Disease) | 4 Care Plans
- Cardiac Arrhythmia (Digitalis Toxicity) | 3 Care Plans
- Cardiac Catheterization | 4 Care Plans
- Cardiogenic Shock | 5 Care Plans
- Congenital Heart Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Heart Failure | 18 Care Plans
- Hypertension | 6 Care Plans
- Hypovolemic Shock | 4 Care Plans
- Myocardial Infarction | 7 Care Plans
- Pacemaker Therapy | 7 Care Plans