Peritonitis is the acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the visceral organs. Inflammation may extend throughout the peritoneum or may be localized as an abscess. Peritonitis commonly decreases intestinal motility and causes intestinal distention with gas. mortality is 10% with death usually a result of bowel obstruction.
The peritoneum is sterile, despite the GI tract normally contains bacteria. When bacteria invade the peritoneum due to an inflammation or perforation of the GI tract peritonitis usually occurs. Bacterial invasion usually results from appendicitis, diverticulitis, peptic ulcer, ulcerative colitis, volvulus, abdominal neoplasms, or a stab wound. It may also be associated with peritoneal dialysis.
Nursing Care Plans
Early treatment of GI inflammation conditions and preoperative and postoperative therapy help prevent peritonitis. Patient care includes monitoring and measures to prevent complications and the spread of infection.
- Risk for Infection
- Deficient Fluid Volume
- Acute Pain
- Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Deficient Knowledge
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Risk for Infection
Risk factors may include
- Inadequate primary defenses (broken skin, traumatized tissue, altered peristalsis)
- Inadequate secondary defenses (immunosuppression)
- Invasive procedures
Possibly evidenced by
- Not applicable. A risk diagnosis is not evidenced by signs and symptoms, as the problem has not occurred and nursing interventions are directed at prevention.
- Achieve timely healing; be free of purulent drainage or erythema; be afebrile.
- Verbalize understanding of the individual causative/risk factor(s).
|Note individual risk factors. Abdominal trauma, acute appendicitis, peritoneal dialysis are common risk factors.||Influences choice of interventions.|
|Assess vital signs frequently, noting unresolved or progressing hypotension, decreased pulse pressure, tachycardia, fever, tachypnea.||Signs of impending septic shock. Circulating endotoxins eventually produce vasodilation, shift of fluid from circulation, and a low cardiac output state.|
|Note changes in mental status: confusion, stupor, altered LOC.||Hypoxemia, hypotension, and acidosis can cause deteriorating mental status.|
|Note skin color, temperature, moisture.||Warm, flushed, dry skin is early sign of septicemia. Later manifestations include cool, clammy, pale skin and cyanosis as shock becomes refractory.|
|Monitor urine output.||Oliguria develops as a result of decreased renal perfusion, circulating toxins, effects of antibiotics.|
|Maintain strict aseptic technique in care of abdominal drains, incisions and/or open wounds, dressings, and invasive sites. Cleanse with appropriate solution.||Prevents access or limits spread of infecting organisms and cross-contamination.|
|Perform and teach proper hand washing technique.||Reduces risk of cross-contamination and/or spread of infection.|
|Observe drainage from wounds and/or drains.||Provides information about status of infection.|
|Maintain sterile technique when catheterizing patient, and provide catheter care and encourage perineal cleansing on a routine basis.||Prevents access, limits bacterial growth in urinary tract.|
|Monitor and/or restrict visitors and staff as appropriate. Provide protective isolation if indicated.||Reduces risk of exposure to and/or acquisition of secondary infection in immuno compromised patient.|
|Obtain specimens and monitor results of serial blood, urine, wound cultures.||Identifies causative microorganisms and helps in assessing effectiveness of antimicrobial regimen.|
|Assist with peritoneal aspiration, if indicated.||May be done to remove fluid and to identify infecting organisms so appropriate antibiotic therapy can be instituted.|
|Administer antimicrobials: gentamicin (Garamycin), amikacin (Amikin), clindamycin (Cleocin), via IV/peritoneal lavage.||Therapy is directed at anaerobic bacteria and aerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Lavage may be used to remove necrotic debris and treat inflammation that is poorly localized or diffused.|
|Prepare for surgical intervention if indicated.||Surgery may be treatment of choice (curative) in acute, localized peritonitis, e.g., to drain localized abscess; remove peritoneal exudates, ruptured appendix or gallbladder; plicate perforated ulcer; or resect bowel.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
More nursing care plans related to gastrointestinal disorders:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans