Hepatitis is a widespread inflammation of the liver that results in degeneration and necrosis of liver cells. Inflammation of the liver can be due to bacterial invasion, injury by physical or toxic chemical agents (e.g., drugs, alcohol, industrial chemicals), viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G), or autoimmune response. Although most hepatitis is self-limiting, approximately 20% of acute hepatitis B and 50% of hepatitis C cases progress to a chronic state or cirrhosis and can be fatal.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care planning and management for patients with hepatitis includes: reducing the demands of the liver while promoting physical well-being, preventing complications of hepatitis, enhance self-concept, acceptance of situation, and providing information about the disease process, prognosis, and treatment.
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
- Deficient Knowledge
- Situational Low Self-Esteem
- Risk for Infection
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
May be related to
- Decreased metabolic energy production
- States of discomfort
- Altered body chemistry (e.g., changes in liver function, effect on target organs)
Possibly evidenced by
- Reports of lack of energy/inability to maintain usual routines.
- Decreased performance
- Increase in physical complaints
- Report improved sense of energy.
- Perform ADLs and participate in desired activities at level of ability.
|Institute bed red or chair rest during toxic state. Provide quiet environment; limit visitors as needed.||Promotes rest and relaxation. Available energy is used for healing. Activity and an upright position are believed to decrease hepatic blood flow, which prevents optimal circulation to the liver cells.|
|Recommend changing position frequently. Provide and instruct caregiver in good skin care.||Promotes optimal respiratory function and minimizes pressure areas to reduce risk of tissue breakdown.|
|Do necessary tasks quickly and at one time as tolerated.||Allows for extended periods of uninterrupted rest.|
|Determine and prioritize role responsibilities and alternative providers and possible community resources available||Promotes problem solving of most pressing needs of individual and family.|
|Identify energy-conserving techniques: sitting to shower and brush teeth, planning steps of activity so that all needed materials are at hand, scheduling rest periods.||Helps minimize fatigue, allowing patient to accomplish more and feel better about self.|
|Increase activity as tolerated, demonstrate passive or active ROM exercises.||Prolonged bedrest can be debilitating. This can be offset by limited activity alternating with rest periods.|
|Encourage use of stress management techniques: progressive relaxation, visualization, guided imagery. Discuss appropriate diversional activities: radio, TV, reading||Promotes relaxation and conserves energy, redirects attention, and may enhance coping.|
|Monitor for recurrence of anorexia and liver tenderness or enlargement.||Indicates lack of resolution and exacerbation of the disease, requiring further rest, change in therapeutic regimen.|
|Administer medications as indicated: sedatives, antianxiety agents: diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan).||Assists in managing required rest. Use of barbiturates and antianxiety agents, such as prochlorperazine (Compazine) and chlorpromazine (Thorazine), is contraindicated because of hepatotoxic effects.|
|Monitor serial liver enzyme levels.||Aids in determining appropriate levels of activity because premature increase in activity potentiates risk of relapse.|
|Administer antidote or assist with inpatient procedures as indicated (lavage, catharsis, hyperventilation) depending on route of exposure.||Removal of causative agent in toxic hepatitis may limit degree of tissue involvement and damage.|
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Gastrointestinal Care Plans
Care plans covering the disorders of the gastrointestinal and digestive system:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans