8 Asthma Nursing Care Plans

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In this guide are eight (8) NANDA nursing diagnosis for asthma nursing care plans including their nursing assessment and interventions. Learn more about the goals, related factors and rationale for each nursing interventions for asthma.

What is asthma?

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus production, and mucosal edema resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Allergens, air pollutants, cold weather, physical exertion, strong odors, and medications are common predisposing factors for asthma. When an individual is exposed to a trigger, an immediate inflammatory response with bronchospasm happens. This inflammatory process leads to recurrent episodes of asthmatic symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and increased mucus production.

Status asthmaticus is severe and persistent asthma that does not respond to usual therapy; attacks can occur with little or no warning and can progress rapidly to asphyxiation.

Nursing Care Plans

The nursing care plan goals for asthma focuses on preventing the hypersensitivity reaction, controlling the allergens, maintaining airway patency and preventing the occurrence of reversible complications.

Here are eight (8) nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis for asthma:

  1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  2. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  3. Deficient Knowledge
  4. Anxiety
  5. Activity Intolerance
  6. Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack
  7. Interrupted Family Processes
  8. Fatigue
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Interrupted Family Processes

Nursing Diagnosis

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  • Interrupted Family Processes

Related Factors

Common related factors for this nursing diagnosis:

  • Sick child
  • Emergent hospitalization

Defining Characteristics

The common assessment cues that could serve as defining characteristics or part of your “as evidenced by” in your diagnostic statement.

  • Alterations in the parent-child relationship which may hinder adjustment and decrease parent’s ability to maximize child’s growth and development potential
  • Parental stress, which may result in parental dysfunction
  • Stress may be manifested by excessive worry, withdrawal, denial, difficulty in making child-rearing decisions, overprotectiveness

Desired Outcomes

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Common goals and expected outcomes:

  • Parent will verbalize feelings and concerns related to the implications of the disease on the entire family.
  • Family will demonstrate acceptance, adjustment, and coping behaviors related to the symptoms and effects of asthma.

Nursing Interventions and Rationales

Here are the nursing assessment and interventions for this asthma nursing care plan.

Nursing InterventionsRationale
Nursing Assessment
Assess available resources and coping skills of the family.Promotes the reinforcement of positive coping skills.
Assess interpersonal relationships within the family and support systems, with emphasis on the family’s relationship with the child diagnosed with asthma; intervene appropriately with evidence of
maladaptation; refer to counseling if
appropriate.
Promotes early recognition of interpersonal problems, especially within the parent-child relationship.
Assess siblings and peers at intervals, as appropriate, providing time for questions and feelings.Promotes positive relationships between siblings and peers, which can be affected by a chronic illness that needs increased parental attention, and so forth.
Explore the family’s feelings regarding the child and the diagnosis.Open discussions during a history-taking can identify family-related psychologic stress, if found early, can be the focus of preventive services to promote adaptation.
Therapeutic Interventions
Provide an opportunity for the family to cope up with the illness; anticipate the normal grief reaction of “loss of the perfect child.”Reaction may be expected in the early adjustment phase, following the diagnosis of chronic disease, depending on the severity.
Assist the family to explore specific
feelings regarding guilt, anger,
disappointment, irritation, and fear;  speak with parents about their fears:  coping with the child’s anxiety, fear of complications, fear of death, fear of tests and procedures, fear of treatments, and the child’s potential inability to feel “normal” as compared to peers; help family to identify realistic and unrealistic
fears.
Validates the normalcy of their feelings which promotes stress reduction and positive coping skills.
Encourage positive family relationships;
serve as a role model regarding attitudes and behaviors towards the child.
Promotes the family’s ability to adjust in a positive manner.
Provide support to the family; assess
the family’s support systems and encourage their appropriate use; refer to community agencies and support groups, as applicable.
Promotes positive adaptation within the family.
Provide clear and accurate information to the family about the condition, treatments, and implications; reinforce all information given.Promotes a sense of control and relieves stress; reinforcement and individualizing the approach fosters better understanding.
Assist family in developing and implementing a home care plan, employing age-appropriate goals consistent with activity tolerance.Provides for a maximum level of care at home; parental participation in the plan of care may help to strengthen compliance and foster positive adaptation.
Encourage child and family to perform good health habits, such as a well-balanced diet, sufficient rest, good hygiene, and follow-up care.Promotes the body’s own natural defenses.
Encourage family in methods to improve the child’s physical, psychological, and cognitive development, based on the child’s current developmental level.Provides parents accurate knowledge on growth and development.
Explain to child/family the potential
advantages of hyposensitization therapy where allergies cannot be avoided, as applicable.
Avoids possible asthma exacerbation when allergen-induced.
Teach child and family accurate use of a nebulizer, peak flow meter, and metered dose inhaler; stress understanding of equipment usage, cleaning, and strategies for compliance.Prevents and/or minimizes exacerbation of asthma by early recognition.
Teach child and family on preventive
treatment when applicable ( i.e., use of bronchodilators as prophylaxis to prevent exercise-induced asthma).
Prevents and/or reduces asthma exacerbations.
Reinforce measures to avoid infections such as good handwashing, cleaning and care of equipment used, and avoiding crowds.Prevention of infection may lessen asthma exacerbations.
Teach parents about the signs of
depression, particularly in the adolescent; suggest appropriate referrals as needed.
Facilitates timely collaboration between parent and healthcare care team if a problem develops.
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Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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See Also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:

Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:

References and Sources

The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for asthma:

  • Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
  • Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
  • Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
  • Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthma. The journal of nursing research: JNR13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]
Paul Martin is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2007. Having worked as a medical-surgical nurse for five years, he handled different kinds of patients and learned how to provide individualized care to them. Now, his experiences working in the hospital is carried over to his writings to help aspiring students achieve their goals. He is currently working as a nursing instructor and have a particular interest in nursing management, emergency care, critical care, infection control, and public health. As a writer at Nurseslabs, his goal is to impart his clinical knowledge and skills to students and nurses helping them become the best version of themselves and ultimately make an impact in uplifting the nursing profession.
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