Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma, associated with alveolar edema and congestion that impair gas exchange. These are the possible Nursing Care Plan (NCP) for patients with pneumonia.
Below are 8 Nursing Care Plans (NCP) for Pneumonia.
Pneumonia NCP Nursing Priorities
- Maintain/improve respiratory function.
- Prevent complications.
- Support recuperative process.
- Provide information about disease process, prognosis and treatment.
- Ineffective Airway Clearance — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Impaired Gas Exchange — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Imbalanced Nutrition — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Acute Pain — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Activity Intolerance — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Risk for Infection — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
- Deficient Knowledge — Pneumonia Nursing Care Plan (NCP)
Pneumonia Discharge Goals
- Ventilation and oxygenation adequate for individual needs.
- Complications prevented/minimized.
- Disease process/prognosis and therapeutic regimen understood.
- Lifestyle changes identified/initiated to prevent recurrence.
- Plan in place to meet needs after discharge.
Pneumonia Diagnostic Studies
- Chest x-ray: Identifies structural distribution (e.g., lobar, bronchial); may also reveal multiple abscesses/infiltrates, empyema (staphylococcus); scattered or localized infiltration (bacterial); or diffuse/extensive nodular infiltrates (more often viral). In mycoplasmal pneumonia, chest x-ray may be clear.
- Fiberoptic bronchoscopy: May be both diagnostic (qualitative cultures) and therapeutic (re-expansion of lung segment).
- ABGs/pulse oximetry: Abnormalities may be present, depending on extent of lung involvement and underlying lung disease.
- Gram stain/cultures: Sputum collection; needle aspiration of empyema, pleural, and transtracheal or transthoracic fluids; lung biopsies and blood cultures may be done to recover causative organism. More than one type of organism may be present; common bacteria include Diplococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, a-hemolytic streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae; cytomegalovirus (CMV). Note: Sputum cultures may not identify all offending organisms. Blood cultures may show transient bacteremia.
- CBC: Leukocytosis usually present, although a low white blood cell (WBC) count may be present in viral infection, immunosuppressed conditions such as AIDS, and overwhelming bacterial pneumonia. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is elevated.
- Serologic studies, e.g., viral or Legionella titers, cold agglutinins: Assist in differential diagnosis of specific organism.
- Pulmonary function studies: Volumes may be decreased (congestion and alveolar collapse); airway pressure may be increased and compliance decreased. Shunting is present (hypoxemia).
- Electrolytes: Sodium and chloride levels may be low.
- Bilirubin: May be increased.
- Percutaneous aspiration/open biopsy of lung tissues: May reveal typical intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions (CMV), characteristic giant cells (rubeola).
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