A cleft lip and palate is a defect caused by the failure of the soft and bony tissue to fuse in utero. These may occur singly or together and often occur with other congenital anomalies such as spina bifida, hydrocephalus, or cardiac defects.
In infants diagnosed with cleft lip, the fusion fails to occur in varying degrees, causing this disorder to range from a small notch in the upper lip to total separation of the lip and facial structures up into the floor of the nose, with even the upper teeth and gingiva absent. Cleft lip deformities can occur unilaterally, bilaterally, or rarely in the midline.
A cleft palate is an opening of the palate and occurs when the palatal process does not close as usual at approximately weeks 9 to 12 of intrauterine life. The incomplete closure is usually on the midline and may involve the anterior hard palate, the posterior soft palate, or both. It may occur as a separate anomaly or in conjunction with a cleft lip.
Treatment consists of surgical repair, usually of the lip between 6 to 10 weeks of age, followed by the palate between 12 to 18 months of age. The surgical procedures depend on the child’s condition and physician preference. Management involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes the surgeon, pediatrician, nurse, orthodontist, prosthodontist, otolaryngologist, and speech therapist.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing goals for clients diagnosed with cleft lip and palate include maintaining adequate nutrition, increasing family coping, reducing the parents’ anxiety and guilt regarding the newborn‘s physical defects, and preparing parents for the future repair of the cleft lip and palate.
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements
- Deficient Knowledge
- Compromised Family Coping
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for (Ear) Infection
Ineffective Airway Clearance
Infants diagnosed with a cleft palate cannot suck effectively either because pressing their tongue or a nipple against the roof of their mouth forces milk into their pharynx, possibly leading to aspiration. Additionally, because of the local edema that occurs after a cleft lip or palate surgery, it’s important to observe children closely in the immediate postoperative period for respiratory distress. After surgery, the infant has to learn to breathe through the nose, possibly adding to the respiratory difficulty.
May be related to
- Tracheobronchial aspiration of feedings
- The trauma of oral surgery
Possibly evidenced by
- Abnormal breath sounds
- Postoperative edema
- Productive/non-productive cough
- Respiratory rate and depth changes
- The infant will maintain a clear airway as evidenced by clear breath sounds and the absence of cyanosis.
- The infant will display a respiratory rate of 20 to 30 breaths per minute, absence of retractions, and respiratory distress.
Nursing Assessment and Rationales
1. Assess the newborn’s respiratory rate, depth, and effort.
Aspiration of secretions or milk may cause tachypnea. Newborns are obligate nose breathers and show signs of distress if their nostrils become obstructed. The newborn’s respiratory rate can be observed most easily by watching the newborn’s abdomen because breathing primarily involves using the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.
2. Assess skin color and capillary refill.
Bluish discoloration of the skin or prolonged capillary filling happens because of the decreased oxygenation produced by the defect. The nurse should note, however, that the peripheral circulation of a newborn remains sluggish for at least the first 24 hours, which can cause cyanosis in the infant’s feet and hands (acrocyanosis).
3. Assess for abdominal distention.
The infant may swallow excess air during bottle feeding, causing abdominal distention that may result in upward pressure on the diaphragm and lungs, compromising respiration. To facilitate palpation (if not contraindicated), the knees and legs should be flexed toward the hips, which allows the abdominal muscles to relax.
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
1. Place the infant in an infant seat at 30° to 45°.
This position prevents the infant’s tongue from falling back and obstructing the airway. If possible, the infant can be placed in an infant bouncy seat. The semi-upright position facilitates burping, limits regurgitation of fluids, and prevents milk from entering the Eustachian tube and middle ear space, thus minimizing ear infections (Burca et al., 2016).
2. Position the infant in an upright position greater than 60° during feeding and elevate the head of the crib to 30° after.
General recommendations for body mechanics in infants with cleft lip or palate while feeding include the following: head support for neutral alignment of head and neck; arms forward, trunk midline, hips flexed; and lip, cheek, and jaw stabilization to provide a platform for sucking movements. Infants with cleft palate are fed in an upright position greater than 60° to allow gravity to facilitate fluid transfer and decrease the tendency for nasopharyngeal reflux (Burca et al., 2016).
3. Allow the infant time to swallow during feedings and provide oral care as appropriate.
Placing a small amount of breast milk or formula into the infant’s mouth and allowing time for swallowing will prevent aspiration. Offering small amounts of sterile water will cleanse the mouth after feeding. Formula or drainage is gently cleaned from the suture line with saline solution.
4. Provide oral and nasal suctioning as needed.
The purpose of suctioning is to maintain a patent airway and improve oxygenation by removing excess fluids and secretions in the oral and nasal cavities. Following either cleft lip or cleft palate surgery, infants may need their mouth suctioned to remove mucus, blood, and unswallowed saliva. When doing this, be exceedingly gentle, so you don’t touch the suture line with the catheter. Place the infant on their side to allow mouth secretions to drain forward.
5. Feed the infant slowly and burp frequently.
Burping frequently during feeding will reduce spitting up and prevent excessive swallowing of air. Holding the infant during feedings, burping frequently, and placing the infant in an infant seat after feeding or on the right side propped with a rolled blanket will aid in a positive outcome for this infant.
6. Position the infant appropriately after surgery.
Following a cleft lip repair, be sure the infant does not turn onto their abdomen because this could put pressure on the suture line, possibly tearing it. Careful positioning ensures the prevention of injury to the operative site.
7. Provide special nipples or feeding devices such as pigeon feeders with a one-way valve.
Feeding may work better using special bottles or nipples with a wider base. A syringe with a rubber tip, a long nipple with a large hole attached to a squeeze bottle, or a medicine dropper can be used to feed the infant formula or breast milk before and after surgery because sucking motions must be avoided to keep from applying tension on the suture line.
8. Coordinate with other health care teams for the holistic care and management of the infant.
Treatment of the infant diagnosed with cleft lip and palate requires multidisciplinary teamwork with a surgeon, pediatrician, pediatric dentist, orthodontist, nurse, psychologist, speech therapist, and social worker. The public health nurse should be responsible for coordinating parental counseling and referral as needed.
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023
The definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA International. In this new version of a pioneering text, all introductory chapters have been rewritten to provide nurses with the essential information they need to comprehend assessment, its relationship to diagnosis and clinical reasoning, and the purpose and application of taxonomic organization at the bedside. A total of 46 new nursing diagnoses and 67 amended nursing diagnostics are presented.
Ackley and Ladwig’s Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
We love this book because of it’s evidence-based approach to nursing interventions. This care plan handbook uses an easy, three-step system to guide you through client assessment, nursing diagnosis, and care planning. Includes step-by-step instructions show how to implement care and evaluate outcomes, and help you build skills in diagnostic reasoning and critical thinking.
Nursing Care Plans – Nursing Diagnosis & Intervention (10th Edition)
Includes over two hundred care plans that reflect the most recent evidence-based guidelines. New to this edition are ICNP diagnoses, care plans on LGBTQ health issues and on electrolytes and acid-base balance.
Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions, and Rationales
Quick-reference tool includes all you need to identify the correct diagnoses for efficient patient care planning. The sixteenth edition includes the most recent nursing diagnoses and interventions from NANDA-I 2021-2023 and an alphabetized listing of nursing diagnoses covering more than 400 disorders.
Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care
Identify interventions to plan, individualize, and document care for more than 800 diseases and disorders. Only in the Nursing Diagnosis Manual will you find for each diagnosis…. subjectively and objectively – sample clinical applications, prioritized action/interventions with rationales – a documentation section, and much more!
All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource – E-Book: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health
Includes over 100 care plans for medical-surgical, maternity/OB, pediatrics, and psychiatric and mental health. Interprofessional “patient problems” focus familiarizes you with how to speak to patients.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database MUST READ!
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans related to the care of the pregnant mother and her baby:
- Abortion (Termination of Pregnancy) | 8 Care Plans
- Cervical Insufficiency (Premature Dilation of the Cervix) | 4 Care Plans
- Cesarean Birth | 11 Care Plans
- Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip | 7 Care Plans
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus | 8 Care Plans
- Hyperbilirubinemia (Jaundice) | 4 Care Plans
- Labor Stages, Induced, Augmented, Dysfunctional, Precipitous Labor | 45 Care Plans
- Neonatal Sepsis | 8 Care Plans
- Perinatal Loss (Miscarriage, Stillbirth) | 6 Care Plans
- Placental Abruption | 4 Care Plans
- Placenta Previa | 4 Care Plans
- Postpartum Hemorrhage | 8 Care Plans
- Postpartum Thrombophlebitis | 5 Care Plans
- Prenatal Hemorrhage (Bleeding in Pregnancy) | 9 Care Plans
- Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension | 6 Care Plans
- Prenatal Infection | 5 Care Plans
- Preterm Labor | 7 Care Plans
- Puerperal & Postpartum Infections | 5 Care Plans
- Substance Abuse in Pregnancy | 9 Care Plans
References and Sources
- Burca, N. D. L., Gephart, S. M., Miller, C., & Zukowsky, K. (2016, October). Promoting Breast Milk Nutrition in Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate. Advances in Neonatal Care, 16(5), 337-344.
- Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2010). Nursing Care Plans Guidelines for Individualizing Client Care Across the Life Span (8th ed.). F.A. Davis Company.
- Kenner, C., Altimier, L., & Boykova, M. V. (Eds.). (2019). Comprehensive Neonatal Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company.
- Leifer, G. (2018). Introduction to Maternity and Pediatric Nursing. Elsevier.
- Silbert-Flagg, J., & Pillitteri, A. (2018). Maternal & Child Health Nursing: Care of the Childbearing & Childrearing Family. Wolters Kluwer. Tolarova, M. M., & Elluru, R. G. (2022, March 10). Pediatric Cleft Lip and Palate Clinical Presentation: Physical Examination. Medscape Reference. Retrieved July 18, 2022.
Reviewed and updated by M. Belleza, R.N.