8 Asthma Nursing Care Plans

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In this guide are eight (8) NANDA nursing diagnosis for asthma nursing care plans including their nursing assessment and interventions. Learn more about the goals, related factors and rationale for each nursing interventions for asthma.

What is asthma?

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus production, and mucosal edema resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Allergens, air pollutants, cold weather, physical exertion, strong odors, and medications are common predisposing factors for asthma. When an individual is exposed to a trigger, an immediate inflammatory response with bronchospasm happens. This inflammatory process leads to recurrent episodes of asthmatic symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and increased mucus production.

Status asthmaticus is severe and persistent asthma that does not respond to usual therapy; attacks can occur with little or no warning and can progress rapidly to asphyxiation.

Nursing Care Plans

The nursing care plan goals for asthma focuses on preventing the hypersensitivity reaction, controlling the allergens, maintaining airway patency and preventing the occurrence of reversible complications.

Here are eight (8) nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis for asthma:

  1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  2. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  3. Deficient Knowledge
  4. Anxiety
  5. Activity Intolerance
  6. Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack
  7. Interrupted Family Processes
  8. Fatigue
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Anxiety

Nursing Diagnosis

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  • Anxiety

Related Factors

Common related factors for this nursing diagnosis:

  • Change in the environment
  • Change in health status
  • Loss of control
  • Hypoxia
  • Respiratory distress

Defining Characteristics

The common assessment cues that could serve as defining characteristics or part of your “as evidenced by” in your diagnostic statement.

  • Apprehensiveness
  • Dyspnea
  • Frequent request for someone to be in the room
  • Restlessness
  • Tachycardia
  • Tachypnea

Desired Outcomes

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Common goals and expected outcomes:

  • Patient will use an effective coping mechanism.
  • Patient will verbalize a reduction in level of anxiety experienced.
  • Patient will demonstrate reduced anxiety as evidenced by a calm demeanor and cooperative behavior.

Nursing Interventions and Rationales

Here are the nursing assessment and interventions for this seizure nursing care plan.

Nursing InterventionsRationale
Nursing Assessment
Assess for signs of anxiety:

 

  • Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Cold or sweaty hands or feet.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Restlessness.
Asthma can become much worse with anxiety since it causes rapid, shallow breathing.
Assess theophylline levels.Therapeutic range of theophylline is between 10 to 20 mcg/mL. Theophylline causes increases anxiety.
Monitor oxygen saturation.Increase anxiety may indicate an early sign of hypoxia.
Therapeutic Interventions
Provide comfort measures:

 

  • Calm, quiet environment.
  • Soft music.
Maintaining calmness will reduce oxygen consumption and the work of breathing.
Explain every procedure to the client in a simple and concise manner.Client’s anxiety will decrease as he or she can understand the treatment regimen.
Ensure to update the significant others of the client’s progress.Family’s anxiety can be easily transferred to the client. Giving off information to them can help relieve apprehension.
Stay with the client, and encourage slow, deep breathing. Assure the client and significant others of close, consistent monitoring that will ensure prompt intervention.The presence of a trusted reliable person may give the client a sense of security.
Encourage the use of relaxation techniques:

 

  • Progressive muscle relaxation as indicated.
  • Diaphragmatic and pursed lip breathing.
  • Use of imagery, repetitive phrases (repeating a phrase that triggers a physical relaxation, such as “relax and let go”).
Relaxation techniques are an effective way of decreasing anxiety.
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Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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See Also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:

Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:

References and Sources

The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for asthma:

  • Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
  • Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
  • Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
  • Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthma. The journal of nursing research: JNR13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]
Paul Martin is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2007. Having worked as a medical-surgical nurse for five years, he handled different kinds of patients and learned how to provide individualized care to them. Now, his experiences working in the hospital is carried over to his writings to help aspiring students achieve their goals. He is currently working as a nursing instructor and have a particular interest in nursing management, emergency care, critical care, infection control, and public health. As a writer at Nurseslabs, his goal is to impart his clinical knowledge and skills to students and nurses helping them become the best version of themselves and ultimately make an impact in uplifting the nursing profession.
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