In this guide are pneumonia nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis, nursing interventions and nursing assessment for pneumonia. Nursing interventions for pneumonia and care plan goals for patients with pneumonia include measures to assist in effective coughing, maintain a patent airway, decreasing viscosity and tenaciousness of secretions, and assist in suctioning.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma, associated with alveolar edema and congestion that impair gas exchange. Pneumonia is caused by a bacterial or viral infection that is spread by droplets or by contact and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.
The prognosis is typically good for people who have normal lungs and adequate host defenses before the onset of pneumonia. Pneumonia is a particular concern in high-risk patients: persons who are very young or very old, people who smoke, bedridden, malnourished, hospitalized, immunocompromised, or exposed to MRSA.
Types of Pneumonia
There are two types of pneumonia: community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or also known as nosocomial pneumonia.
Pneumonia may also be classified depending on its location and radiologic appearance. Bronchopneumonia (bronchial pneumonia) involves the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Interstitial (reticular) pneumonia involves inflammatory response within lung tissue surrounding the air spaces or vascular structures rather than the area passages themselves. Alveolar (or acinar) pneumonia involves fluid accumulation in the lung’s distal air spaces. Necrotizing pneumonia causes the death of a portion of lung tissue surrounded by a viable tissue.
Pneumonia is also classified based on its microbiologic etiology – they can be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, mycobacterial, mycoplasmal, or rickettsial in origin.
Signs and Symptoms
The main symptoms of pneumonia are coughing, sputum production, pleuritic chest pain, shaking chills, rapid shallow breathing, fever, and shortness of breath. If left untreated, pneumonia could complicate to hypoxemia, respiratory failure, pleural effusion, empyema, lung abscess, and bacteremia.
Nursing care plan (NCP) and care management for patients with pneumonia start with an assessment of the patient’ medical history, performing respiratory assessment every four (4) hours, physical examination, and ABG measurements. Supportive interventions include oxygen therapy, suctioning, coughing, deep breathing, adequate hydration, and mechanical ventilation. Other nursing interventions are detailed on the nursing diagnoses in the subsequent sections.
Here are 11 nursing diagnosis common to pneumonia nursing care plans (NCP), they are as follows:
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Risk for Infection
- Acute Pain
- Activity Intolerance
- Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
- Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Deficient Knowledge
- Deficient Fluid Volume
Deficient Fluid Volume
Patients with pneumonia who are having fever and diaphoresis have insensible fluid losses from the lungs and skin that may lead to deficient fluid volume.
- Deficient Fluid Volume
Common related factors:
- Increased insensible loss happening with fever, diaphoresis, or tachypnea
The common assessment cues that could serve as defining characteristics or part of your “as evidenced by” in your diagnostic statement.
- Dry mucous membrane
- Decreased skin turgor
- Decreased urine output
- Increased urine concentration
Common goals and expected outcomes for Deficient Fluid Volume nursing diagnosis:
- Patient will display euvolemic as evidenced by normal skin turgor, moist mucous membranes, HR less than 100 bpm, SBP higher than 90 mm Hg, urine output 30 mL/hR, and fluid intake approximating fluid output.
Nursing Interventions and Rationale
Here are the nursing interventions and actions for this pneumonia nursing care plans.
|Monitor and record intake and output accurately. Observe urine color. Watch out for urinary output <30ml per hour.||Helps assess fluid balance. Urinary output less than 30 ml for 2 consecutive hours is a sign of fluid volume deficit. Dark-colored urine reflects increased urine concentration.|
|Weigh patient daily at the same time of the day in the same clothes using the same scale; Monitor for trends (weigh changes of 1-1.5 kg day)||Aids in establishing accurate measurement of weight. An indicator of a fluid volume deficit or excess is a weight changes of 1- 1.5 kg/day.|
|Assess skin turgor and mucous membranes for any indication of dehydration.||Dryness of the tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth, longitudinal tongue furrows are symptoms of deficient fluid volume.|
|Monitor and record vital signs.||Changes in vital signs seen in patient with hypovolemia includes increased temperature, increased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure.|
|Encourage frequent oral hygiene.||Oral hygiene can moisten dried mucous membranes and allows the patient to react to the sensation of thirst.|
|Advice patient to increase fluid intake for at least 2.5 L/day as appropriate.||This measure helps in maintaining adequate hydration.|
|Maintain intravenous fluid therapy as indicated.||Parenteral fluid replacement is administered to prevent the occurence of shock.|
|Provide humidified oxygen therapy as indicated.||Humidity lessens convective moisture losses while in oxygen therapy.|
You may also like the following posts and care plans:
- Nursing Care Plan: The Ultimate Guide and Database – the ultimate database of nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions! Get the complete list!
- Nursing Diagnosis: The Complete Guide and List – archive of different nursing diagnoses with their definition, related factors, goals and nursing interventions with rationale.
Related Nursing Care Plans
Related nursing diagnoses you can use to craft another pneumonia nursing care plans.
- Impaired Dentition. May be related to dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, chronic vomiting, possibly evidenced by erosion of tooth enamel, multiple carries, abraded teeth.
- Impaired oral mucous membrane. Maybe related to breathing through the mouth, malnutrition or vitamin deficiency, poor oral hygiene, chronic vomiting, possibly evidenced by sore, inflamed buccal mucosa, swollen salivary glands, ulcerations, and reports of sore mouth and/or throat.
- Legacy care plans (via Scribd): Ineffective Airway Clearance, Risk for Infection, Ineffective Breathing Pattern, Impaired Gas Exchange, Hyperthermia
References and Sources
Recommended journals, books, and other interesting materials to help you learn more about Pneumonia Nursing Care Plans:
- Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. H. (2009). Medical-surgical nursing: Clinical management for positive outcomes (Vol. 1). A. M. Keene (Ed.). Saunders Elsevier. [Link]
- Dempsey, C. L. (1995). Nursing Home‐Acquired Pneumonia: Outcomes from a Clinical Process Improvement Program. Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, 15(1P2), 33S-38S. [Link]
- Doenges, M. E., Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2016). Nurse‘s pocket guide: Diagnoses, prioritized interventions, and rationales. FA Davis. [Link]
- Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2016). Nursing Care Plans: Diagnoses, Interventions, and Outcomes. Elsevier Health Sciences. [Link]
- Head, B. J., Scherb, C. A., Reed, D., Conley, D. M., Weinberg, B., Kozel, M., … & Moorhead, S. (2011). Nursing diagnoses, interventions, and patient outcomes for hospitalized older adults with pneumonia. Research in gerontological nursing, 4(2), 95-105. [Link]
- Yoshino, A., Ebihara, T., Ebihara, S., Fuji, H., & Sasaki, H. (2001). Daily oral care and risk factors for pneumonia among elderly nursing home patients. Jama, 286(18), 2235-2236. [Link]
Originally published January 10, 2010.