8 Asthma Nursing Care Plans


In this guide are eight (8) NANDA nursing diagnosis for asthma nursing care plans including their nursing assessment and interventions. Learn more about the goals, related factors and rationale for each nursing interventions for asthma.

What is asthma?

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus production, and mucosal edema resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Allergens, air pollutants, cold weather, physical exertion, strong odors, and medications are common predisposing factors for asthma. When an individual is exposed to a trigger, an immediate inflammatory response with bronchospasm happens. This inflammatory process leads to recurrent episodes of asthmatic symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and increased mucus production.

Status asthmaticus is severe and persistent asthma that does not respond to usual therapy; attacks can occur with little or no warning and can progress rapidly to asphyxiation.

Nursing Care Plans

The nursing care plan goals for asthma focuses on preventing the hypersensitivity reaction, controlling the allergens, maintaining airway patency and preventing the occurrence of reversible complications.

Here are eight (8) nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis for asthma:

  1. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  2. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  3. Deficient Knowledge
  4. Anxiety
  5. Activity Intolerance
  6. Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack
  7. Interrupted Family Processes
  8. Fatigue

Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Health-seeking behaviors (specify)

Related Factors

Common related factors for this nursing diagnosis:

  • Longing for information about preventive measures and behavior changes

Defining Characteristics

The common assessment cues that could serve as defining characteristics or part of your “as evidenced by” in your diagnostic statement.

  • Expressed desire for increased control of health practices and effect of current environmental conditions and behaviors on health status
  • Increased frequency of attacks

Desired Outcomes


Common goals and expected outcomes:

  • Parents (and child if age-appropriate) will verbalize understanding of triggering agents and prevention measures for asthma attacks.

Nursing Interventions and Rationales

Here are the nursing assessment and interventions for this asthma nursing care plan.

Nursing InterventionsRationale
Nursing Assessment
Assess client history such as triggering factors, incidence of respiratory infections and interventions taken to support the child’s health.Provides a basis for information required for maintaining the health, as respiratory changes or infection can precipitate an asthma attack.
Assess family’s history of allergies, what does or does not trigger an attack, and what behaviors result from the attack.Reveals familial tendency to airway reactive disease or history of eczema, allergic rhinitis, urticaria.
Assess for use of over-the-counter
medications, type used and effects.
Determines whether products readily accessible for treatment of respiratory infection should or should not be used, as they may interact with prescribed medications, causing a more severe attack.
Therapeutic Interventions
Instruct child to avoid exposure to persons with respiratory infections, how to cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and to dispose of tissues.Prevents transmission of microorganisms by airborne droplets.
Instruct the child to refrain from stressful situations and strenuous physical exercise.Provides information on how to prevent situations that may provoke an attack.
Instruct parents to modify the home environment to reduce dust, exposure to pets and indoor plants, foods (peanut, egg), changing of filters.Limits exposure to factors that can trigger an attack.
Educate parents/child about proper techniques in handwashing and allow time for return demonstration.Avoids transfer of microorganisms from touching or handling supplies, touching the face of the child by parents or child without handwash.
Encourage breathing exercises and
controlled breathing and relaxation.
Prevents attack before it begins and increases ventilation.
Educate parents and child about the disease condition, signs and symptoms and possible triggering factors influencing an attack.Provides information that will improve the performance of preventive measures and compliance with the medical regimen.
Discuss with parents and child the signs and symptoms indicating the onset of an attack (shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain).Teach actions to be taken to prevent a severe attack and when to notify the physician.
Educate parents about the effect of allergens and how to limit exposure to external factors (cold air, pollen, dust mites, air pollutants).Reduces exposure to factors that precipitate an attack.
Inform parents of skin testing for
sensitivities to allergens.
Identifies allergies for hypersensitization regimen.
Teach parents and child about medication administration as ordered and how to manage method of administration;
advise avoiding over-the-counter drugs without physician advice.
Promotes compliance in order to prevent an attack and maintain wellness.
Provide contact with community agencies for information and support.Offers support to families with the child suffering from asthma.

Recommended Resources

Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.

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See Also

Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:

Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:

References and Sources

The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for asthma:

  • Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
  • Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
  • Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
  • Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
  • Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthma. The journal of nursing research: JNR13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]
Paul Martin is a registered nurse with a bachelor of science in nursing since 2007. Having worked as a medical-surgical nurse for five years, he handled different kinds of patients and learned how to provide individualized care to them. Now, his experiences working in the hospital is carried over to his writings to help aspiring students achieve their goals. He is currently working as a nursing instructor and have a particular interest in nursing management, emergency care, critical care, infection control, and public health. As a writer at Nurseslabs, his goal is to impart his clinical knowledge and skills to students and nurses helping them become the best version of themselves and ultimately make an impact in uplifting the nursing profession.
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