In this guide are eight (8) NANDA nursing diagnosis for asthma nursing care plans including their nursing assessment and interventions. Learn more about the goals, related factors and rationale for each nursing interventions for asthma.
What is asthma?
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus production, and mucosal edema resulting in reversible airflow obstruction. Allergens, air pollutants, cold weather, physical exertion, strong odors, and medications are common predisposing factors for asthma. When an individual is exposed to a trigger, an immediate inflammatory response with bronchospasm happens. This inflammatory process leads to recurrent episodes of asthmatic symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and increased mucus production.
Status asthmaticus is severe and persistent asthma that does not respond to usual therapy; attacks can occur with little or no warning and can progress rapidly to asphyxiation.
Nursing Care Plans
The nursing care plan goals for asthma focuses on preventing the hypersensitivity reaction, controlling the allergens, maintaining airway patency and preventing the occurrence of reversible complications.
Here are eight (8) nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis for asthma:
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Deficient Knowledge
- Activity Intolerance
- Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack
- Interrupted Family Processes
Health-Seeking Behaviors: Prevention of Asthma Attack
- Health-seeking behaviors (specify)
Common related factors for this nursing diagnosis:
- Longing for information about preventive measures and behavior changes
The common assessment cues that could serve as defining characteristics or part of your “as evidenced by” in your diagnostic statement.
- Expressed desire for increased control of health practices and effect of current environmental conditions and behaviors on health status
- Increased frequency of attacks
Common goals and expected outcomes:
- Parents (and child if age-appropriate) will verbalize understanding of triggering agents and prevention measures for asthma attacks.
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
Here are the nursing assessment and interventions for this asthma nursing care plan.
|Assess client history such as triggering factors, incidence of respiratory infections and interventions taken to support the child’s health.||Provides a basis for information required for maintaining the health, as respiratory changes or infection can precipitate an asthma attack.|
|Assess family’s history of allergies, what does or does not trigger an attack, and what behaviors result from the attack.||Reveals familial tendency to airway reactive disease or history of eczema, allergic rhinitis, urticaria.|
|Assess for use of over-the-counter|
medications, type used and effects.
|Determines whether products readily accessible for treatment of respiratory infection should or should not be used, as they may interact with prescribed medications, causing a more severe attack.|
|Instruct child to avoid exposure to persons with respiratory infections, how to cover mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and to dispose of tissues.||Prevents transmission of microorganisms by airborne droplets.|
|Instruct the child to refrain from stressful situations and strenuous physical exercise.||Provides information on how to prevent situations that may provoke an attack.|
|Instruct parents to modify the home environment to reduce dust, exposure to pets and indoor plants, foods (peanut, egg), changing of filters.||Limits exposure to factors that can trigger an attack.|
|Educate parents/child about proper techniques in handwashing and allow time for return demonstration.||Avoids transfer of microorganisms from touching or handling supplies, touching the face of the child by parents or child without handwash.|
|Encourage breathing exercises and|
controlled breathing and relaxation.
|Prevents attack before it begins and increases ventilation.|
|Educate parents and child about the disease condition, signs and symptoms and possible triggering factors influencing an attack.||Provides information that will improve the performance of preventive measures and compliance with the medical regimen.|
|Discuss with parents and child the signs and symptoms indicating the onset of an attack (shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain).||Teach actions to be taken to prevent a severe attack and when to notify the physician.|
|Educate parents about the effect of allergens and how to limit exposure to external factors (cold air, pollen, dust mites, air pollutants).||Reduces exposure to factors that precipitate an attack.|
|Inform parents of skin testing for|
sensitivities to allergens.
|Identifies allergies for hypersensitization regimen.|
|Teach parents and child about medication administration as ordered and how to manage method of administration;|
advise avoiding over-the-counter drugs without physician advice.
|Promotes compliance in order to prevent an attack and maintain wellness.|
|Provide contact with community agencies for information and support.||Offers support to families with the child suffering from asthma.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans related to respiratory system disorders:
- Asthma | 8 Care Plans
- Bronchiolitis | 5 Care Plans
- Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) | 5 Care Plans
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) | 7 Care Plans
- Cystic Fibrosis | 5 Care Plans
- Hemothorax and Pneumothorax | 3 Care Plans
- Influenza (Flu) | 5 Care Plans
- Lung Cancer | 5 Care Plans
- Mechanical Ventilation | 6 Care Plans
- Near-Drowning | 5 Care Plans
- Pleural Effusion | 6 Care Plans
- Pneumonia | 11 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Embolism | 4 Care Plans
- Pulmonary Tuberculosis | 5 Care Plans
- Tracheostomy | 5 Care Plans
References and Sources
The following are the references and sources for the nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan for asthma:
- Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Msn, R. N., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook E-Book: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care. Mosby. [Link]
- Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2006). Handbook of nursing diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [Link]
- Joyce, B. M., & Jane, H. H. (2008). Medical surgical nursing. Clinical management for positive outcome. Volume 1. Eight Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis. Missouri. [Link]
- Pellico, L. H., Bautista, C., & Esposito, C. (2012). Focus on adult health medical-surgical nursing. [Link]
- Yang, B. H., Chen, Y. C., Chiang, B. L., & Chang, Y. C. (2005). Effects of nursing instruction on asthma knowledge and quality of life in schoolchildren with asthma. The journal of nursing research: JNR, 13(3), 174-183. [Read Abstract]