Liver cirrhosis, also known as hepatic cirrhosis, is a chronic hepatic disease characterized by diffuse destruction and fibrotic regeneration of hepatic cells. As necrotic tissues yields to fibrosis, the diseases alters the liver structure and normal vasculature, impairs blood and lymph flow, and ultimately causing hepatic insufficiency. Causes include malnutrition, inflammation (bacterial or viral), and poisons (e.g., alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, acetaminophen). Cirrhosis is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States among people ages 35 to 55 and represents a serious threat to long-term health.
These are the clinical types of cirrhosis:
- Laennec’s cirrhosis is the most common type and occurs 30% to 50% of cirrhotic patients. Up to 90% of whom have a history of alcoholism. Liver damage results from malnutrition, especially of dietary protein, and chronic alcohol ingestion. Fibrous tissue forms in portal areas and around central veins.
- Biliary cirrhosis occurs in 15% to 20% of patients, and results from injury or prolonged obstruction.
- Postnecrotic cirrhosis stems from various types of hepatitis.
- Pigment cirrhosis results from disorders such as hemochromatosis.
- Idiopathic cirrhosis, has no known cause.
- Noncirrhotic fibrosis may results from schistosomiasis or congenital hepatic fibrosis or may be idiopathic.
Nursing Care Plans
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
- Excess Fluid Volume
- Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Risk for Injury
- Risk for Acute Confusion
- Disturbed Body Image
- Deficient Knowledge
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Ineffective Breathing Pattern
Risk factors may include
- Intra-abdominal fluid collection (ascites)
- Decreased lung expansion, accumulated secretions
- Decreased energy, fatigue
- Maintain effective respiratory pattern; be free of dyspnea and cyanosis, with ABGs and vital capacity within acceptable range.
|Monitor respiratory rate, depth, and effort.||Rapid shallow respiration or presence of dyspnea may appear because of hypoxia and/or fluid accumulation in the abdomen.|
|Auscultate breath sounds, noting crackles, wheezes, rhonchi.||May indicate developing complications. Presence of adventitious breath sounds may reflect accumulation of fluids or secretions. Absent or diminished sounds suggests atelectasis.|
|Investigate changes in level of consciousness.||Changes in mentation may reflect hypoxemia and respiratory failure, which often accompany hepatic coma.|
|Keep head of bed elevated. Position on sides.||Facilitates breathing by reducing pressure on the diaphragm, and minimizes risk of aspiration of secretions.|
|Encourage frequent repositioning and deep-breathing exercises and coughing exercises.||Aids in lung expansion and mobilizing secretions.|
|Monitor temperature. Note presence of chills, increased coughing, changes in color and character of sputum.||Indicative of onset of infection, especially pneumonia.|
|Monitor serial ABGs, pulse oximetry, vital capacity measurements, chest x-rays.||Reveals changes in respiratory status, developing pulmonary complications.|
|Provide supplemental O2 as indicated.||To treat or prevent hypoxia and if respirations and oxygenation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation may be required.|
|Demonstrate and assist with respiratory adjuncts: incentive spirometer.||Reduces incidence of atelectasis, enhances mobilization of secretions.|
|Prepare for/assist with acute care procedures:|
||Occasionally done to remove ascites fluid to relieve abdominal pressure when respiratory embarrassment is not corrected by other measures.|
||Surgical implant of a catheter to return accumulated fluid in the abdominal cavity to systemic circulation via the vena cava; provides long-term relief of ascites and improvement in respiratory function.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
More nursing care plans related to gastrointestinal disorders:
- Appendectomy | 4 Care Plans
- Cholecystectomy | 12 Care Plans
- Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis | 4 Care Plans
- Gastroenteritis | 4 Care Plans
- Hemorrhoids | 3 Care Plans
- Hepatitis | 7 Care Plans
- Ileostomy & Colostomy | 10 Care Plans
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease | 7 Care Plans
- Intussusception | 3 Care Plans
- Liver Cirrhosis | 8 Care Plans
- Pancreatitis | 8+ Care Plans
- Peritonitis | 6 Care Plans
- Peptic Ulcer Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Subtotal Gastrectomy | 2 Care Plans