This nursing care plan guide contains 18 nursing diagnoses and some priority aspects of clinical care for patients with heart failure. Learn about the nursing interventions and assessment cues for heart failure, including the goals, defining characteristics, and related factors for each nursing diagnosis.
What is Heart Failure?
Heart failure (HF) or Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a physiologic state in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s metabolic needs following any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood.
Heart failure results from changes in the systolic or diastolic function of the left ventricle. The heart fails when, because of intrinsic disease or structural, it cannot handle a normal blood volume or, in the absence of disease, cannot tolerate a sudden expansion in blood volume. Heart failure is a progressive and chronic condition managed by significant lifestyle changes and adjunct medical therapy to improve quality of life. Heart failure is caused by various cardiovascular conditions such as chronic hypertension, coronary artery disease, and valvular disease.
Heart failure is not a disease itself. Instead, the term refers to a clinical syndrome characterized by manifestations of volume overload, inadequate tissue perfusion, and poor exercise tolerance. Whatever the cause, pump failure results in hypoperfusion of tissues, followed by pulmonary and systemic venous congestion.
Heart failure can affect the heart’s left side, right side, or both sides. Though, it usually affects the left side first. The signs and symptoms of heart failure are defined based on which ventricle is affected—left-sided heart failure causes a different set of manifestations than right-sided heart failure.
Left-Sided Heart Failure
- Dyspnea on exertion
- Pulmonary congestion, pulmonary crackles
- Cough that is initially dry and nonproductive
- Frothy sputum that is sometimes blood-tinged
- Inadequate tissue perfusion
- Weak, thready pulse
- Oliguria, nocturia
Right-Sided Heart Failure
- Congestion of the viscera and peripheral tissues
- Edema of the lower extremities
- Enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly)
- Anorexia, nausea
- Weight gain (fluid retention)
Because heart failure causes vascular congestion, it is often called congestive heart failure, although most cardiac specialists no longer use it. Other terms used to denote heart failure include chronic heart failure, cardiac decompensation, cardiac insufficiency, and ventricular failure.
Nursing Care Plans
Nursing care plan goals for patients with heart failure include support to improve heart pump function by various nursing interventions, prevention and identification of complications, and providing a teaching plan for lifestyle modifications. Nursing interventions include promoting activity and reducing fatigue to relieve the symptoms of fluid overload.
Here are 18 nursing care plans (NCP) and nursing diagnoses for patients with Heart Failure:
- Decreased Cardiac Output UPDATED
- Activity Intolerance UPDATED
- Excess Fluid Volume
- Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
- Deficient Knowledge
- Acute Pain
- Ineffective Tissue Perfusion
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Risk for Impaired Gas Exchange
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Risk for Decreased Cardiac Tissue Perfusion
- Other Nursing Care Plans
Anxiety is profoundly frequent among patients with heart failure, with nearly 30 percent of patients having clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Anxiety may make it more challenging for patients with heart failure to follow diet, exercise, and medication use recommendations.
Common related factors for this nursing diagnosis:
- Breathlessness from inadequate oxygenation
Common goals and expected outcomes:
- Patient will identify strategies to reduce anxiety.
- Patient will demonstrate improved concentration.
- Patient will manage anxiety and coping patterns.
Nursing Assessment and Rationales
The following are the nursing assessment for this heart failure nursing care plan.
1. Assess the patient’s level of anxiety. Hildegard E. Peplau described 4 levels of anxiety: mild, moderate, severe, and panic.
- The patient with mild anxiety will have minimal or no physiological symptoms of anxiety. Vital signs will be within normal ranges. The patient will appear calm but may report feelings of nervousness such as “butterflies in the stomach.”
- The patient with moderate anxiety may appear energized, with more animated facial expressions and tone of voice. Vital signs may be normal or slightly elevated. The patient may report feeling tense.
- With severe anxiety, the patient will have increased autonomic nervous system activity symptoms, such as elevated vital signs, diaphoresis, urinary urgency and frequency, dry mouth, and muscle tension. At this stage, the patient may experience palpitations and chest pain. The patient may be agitated and irritable and report feeling overloaded or overwhelmed by new stimuli.
- In the panic level of anxiety, the autonomic nervous system increases to sympathetic neurotransmitter release. The patient becomes pale and hypotensive and experiences poor muscle coordination. The patient reports feeling completely out of control and may display extremes of behavior from combativeness to withdrawal.
2. Assess physical reactions to anxiety.
Anxiety also plays a role in somatoform disorders, characterized by physical symptoms such as pain, nausea, weakness, or dizziness that have no apparent physical cause.
3. Validate observations by asking the patient, “Are you feeling anxious now?”
Anxiety is a highly individualized, physical, and psychological response to internal or external life events.
4. Recognize awareness of the patient’s anxiety.
Acknowledgment of the patient’s feelings validates the feelings and communicates acceptance of those feelings.
Nursing Interventions and Rationales
The following are the nursing interventions for this heart failure nursing care plan.
1. Interact with patients in a calm, peaceful manner.
This approach may help decrease anxiety, so that patient’s cardiac work is also decreased.
2. Familiarize patients with the environment and new experiences or people as needed.
Awareness of the environment promotes comfort and may decrease anxiety experienced by the patient. Anxiety may intensify to a panic level if the patient feels threatened and unable to control environmental stimuli. A decrease in anxiety will also mean that patient’s cardiac work is also decreased.
3. Administer oxygen during the acute stage.
Oxygen therapy diminishes the work of breathing and increases comfort.
4. When the patient displays anxiety, promote physical comfort and psychological support.
A family member’s presence may provide reassurance; pet visitation or animal-assisted therapy can also be helpful.
5. Converse using simple language and brief statements.
When experiencing moderate to severe anxiety, patients may not understand anything more than simple, clear, and brief instructions.
6. When the patient is comfortable, teach ways to control anxiety and avoid anxiety-provoking situations.
Anxiety may intensify to a panic state with excessive conversation, noise, and equipment around the patient. Increasing anxiety may become frightening to the patient and others.
7. Assist in identifying factors that contribute to anxiety.
Talking about anxiety-producing situations and anxious feelings can help the patient perceive the situation realistically and recognize anxiety-related factors.
8. Help patient determine precipitants of anxiety that may indicate interventions.
Obtaining insight allows the patient to reevaluate the threat or identify new ways to deal with it.
9. Screen for depression, which often accompanies or results from anxiety.
Symptoms of depression and anxiety are present in about one-third of patients with heart failure. Studies found evidence confirming “markedly higher” rates of depression and anxiety disorders among patients with heart failure compared to the general population.
10. Allow the patient to talk about anxious feelings and examine anxiety-provoking situations if they are identifiable.
Talking about anxiety-producing situations and anxious feelings can help the patient perceive the situation realistically and recognize anxiety-related factors.
11. Assist the patient in developing new anxiety-reducing skills (e.g., relaxation, deep breathing, positive visualization, and reassuring self-statements).
Discovering new coping methods provides the patient with a variety of ways to manage anxiety.
12. Avoid unnecessary reassurance; this may increase undue worry.
Reassurance is not helpful for the anxious individual.
13. Intervene when possible to eliminate sources of anxiety.
Anxiety is a normal response to actual or perceived danger; the response will stop if the threat is eliminated.
14. Explain all activities, procedures, and issues that involve the patient; use non-medical terms and calm, slow speech. Do this in advance of procedures when possible, and validate the patient’s understanding.
With preadmission patient education, patients experience less anxiety and emotional distress and have increased coping skills because they know what to expect. Uncertainty and lack of predictability contribute to anxiety.
15. Educate patient and family about the symptoms of anxiety.
If the patient and family can identify anxious responses, they can intervene earlier than otherwise.
16. Teach patients to visualize or fantasize about the absence of anxiety or pain, successful experience of the situation, resolution of conflict, or outcome of the procedure.
The use of guided imagery has been useful for reducing anxiety.
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
Ackley and Ladwig’s Nursing Diagnosis Handbook: An Evidence-Based Guide to Planning Care
We love this book because of its evidence-based approach to nursing interventions. This care plan handbook uses an easy, three-step system to guide you through client assessment, nursing diagnosis, and care planning. Includes step-by-step instructions showing how to implement care and evaluate outcomes, and help you build skills in diagnostic reasoning and critical thinking.
Nursing Care Plans – Nursing Diagnosis & Intervention (10th Edition)
Includes over two hundred care plans that reflect the most recent evidence-based guidelines. New to this edition are ICNP diagnoses, care plans on LGBTQ health issues and on electrolytes and acid-base balance.
NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023
The definitive guide to nursing diagnoses is reviewed and approved by the NANDA International. In this new version of a pioneering text, all introductory chapters have been rewritten to provide nurses with the essential information they need to comprehend assessment, its relationship to diagnosis and clinical reasoning, and the purpose and application of taxonomic organization at the bedside. A total of 46 new nursing diagnoses and 67 amended nursing diagnostics are presented.
Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions, and Rationales
Quick-reference tool includes all you need to identify the correct diagnoses for efficient patient care planning. The sixteenth edition includes the most recent nursing diagnoses and interventions from NANDA-I 2021-2023 and an alphabetized listing of nursing diagnoses covering more than 400 disorders.
Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care
Identify interventions to plan, individualize, and document care for more than 800 diseases and disorders. Only in the Nursing Diagnosis Manual will you find for each diagnosis…. subjectively and objectively – sample clinical applications, prioritized action/interventions with rationales – a documentation section, and much more!
All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource – E-Book: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health
Includes over 100 care plans for medical-surgical, maternity/OB, pediatrics, and psychiatric and mental health. Interprofessional “patient problems” focus familiarizes you with how to speak to patients.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database MUST READ!
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other nursing care plans for cardiovascular system disorders:
- Angina Pectoris (Coronary Artery Disease) | 4 Care Plans
- Cardiac Arrhythmia (Digitalis Toxicity) | 3 Care Plans
- Cardiac Catheterization | 4 Care Plans
- Cardiogenic Shock | 5 Care Plans
- Congenital Heart Disease | 5 Care Plans
- Heart Failure | 18 Care Plans
- Hypertension | 6 Care Plans
- Hypovolemic Shock | 4 Care Plans
- Myocardial Infarction | 7 Care Plans
- Pacemaker Therapy | 6 Care Plans
References and Sources
Recommended journals, books, and other interesting materials to help you learn more about heart failure nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis:
- Albert, N. M. (2012). Fluid management strategies in heart failure. Critical care nurse, 32(2), 20-32.
- Albert, N., Trochelman, K., Li, J., & Lin, S. (2010). Signs and symptoms of heart failure: are you asking the right questions?. American Journal of Critical Care, 19(5), 443-452.
- Alkhawam, H., Abo-Salem, E., Zaiem, F., Ampadu, J., Rahman, A., Sulaiman, S., … & Vittorio, T. J. (2019). Effect of digitalis level on readmission and mortality rate among heart failure reduced ejection fraction patients. Heart & Lung, 48(1), 22-27.
- Allen, J. K., & Dennison, C. R. (2010). Randomized trials of nursing interventions for secondary prevention in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure: systematic review. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 25(3), 207-220.
- Amin, A., Garcia Reeves, A. B., Li, X., Dhamane, A., Luo, X., Di Fusco, M., … & Keshishian, A. (2019). Effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulants in older adults with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and heart failure. PloS one, 14(3), e0213614.
- Austin, J., Williams, R., Ross, L., Moseley, L., & Hutchison, S. (2005). Randomised controlled trial of cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients with heart failure. European Journal of Heart Failure, 7(3), 411-417.
- Barrese, V., & Taglialatela, M. (2013). New advances in beta-blocker therapy in heart failure. Frontiers in physiology, 4, 323.
- Bikdeli, B., Strait, K. M., Dharmarajan, K., Li, S. X., Mody, P., Partovian, C., … & Krumholz, H. M. (2015). Intravenous fluids in acute decompensated heart failure. JACC: Heart Failure, 3(2), 127-133.
- Bocchi, E. A. (2001). Cardiomyoplasty for treatment of heart failure. European journal of heart failure, 3(4), 403-406.
- Bolger, A. P., Coats, A. J., & Gatzoulis, M. A. (2003). Congenital heart disease: the original heart failure syndrome. European Heart Journal, 24(10), 970-976.
- Brater, D. C. (2000). Pharmacology of diuretics. The American journal of the medical sciences, 319(1), 38-50.
- Brennan, E. J. (2018). Chronic heart failure nursing: integrated multidisciplinary care. British Journal of Nursing, 27(12), 681-688.
- Brunner, L. S. (2010). Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing (Vol. 1). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Butler, J., Young, J. B., Abraham, W. T., Bourge, R. C., Adams, K. F., Clare, R., … & ESCAPE Investigators. (2006). Beta-blocker use and outcomes among hospitalized heart failure patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 47(12), 2462-2469.
- Cattadori, G., Segurini, C., Picozzi, A., Padeletti, L., & Anzà, C. (2018). Exercise and heart failure: an update. ESC heart failure, 5(2), 222-232.
- Chew, H. S. J., Sim, K. L. D., & Cao, X. (2019). Motivation, challenges and self-regulation in heart failure self-care: a theory-driven qualitative study. International journal of behavioral medicine, 26(5), 474-485.
- Conti, C. R. (2011). Intravenous morphine and chest pain. Clinical cardiology, 34(8), 464.
- Cowie, M. R., & Mendez, G. F. (2002). BNP and congestive heart failure. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 44(4), 293-321.
- De Bruyne, L. K. M. (2003). Mechanisms and management of diuretic resistance in congestive heart failure. Postgraduate medical journal, 79(931), 268-271.
- De Jong, M. J., Chung, M. L., Wu, J. R., Riegel, B., Rayens, M. K., & Moser, D. K. (2011). Linkages between anxiety and outcomes in heart failure. Heart & Lung, 40(5), 393-404.
- Drazner, M. H., Rame, J. E., & Dries, D. L. (2003). Third heart sound and elevated jugular venous pressure as markers of the subsequent development of heart failure in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. The American journal of medicine, 114(6), 431-437.
- Elkayam, U., Akhter, M. W., Tummala, P., Khan, S., & Singh, H. (2002). Nesiritide: a new drug for the treatment of decompensated heart failure. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics, 7(3), 181-194.
- Ellison, D. H., & Felker, G. M. (2017). Diuretic treatment in heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(20), 1964-1975.
- Enright, P. L. (2003). The six-minute walk test. Respiratory care, 48(8), 783-785.
- Faris, R. F., Flather, M., Purcell, H., Poole‐Wilson, P. A., & Coats, A. J. (2012). Diuretics for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).
- Felker, G. M., Ellison, D. H., Mullens, W., Cox, Z. L., & Testani, J. M. (2020). Diuretic therapy for patients with heart failure: JACC state-of-the-art review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(10), 1178-1195.
- Fletcher, G. F., Balady, G. J., Amsterdam, E. A., Chaitman, B., Eckel, R., Fleg, J., … & Bazzarre, T. (2001). Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 104(14), 1694-1740.
- Friederich, J. A., & Butterworth, J. F. (1995). Sodium nitroprusside: twenty years and counting. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 81(1), 152-162.
- Gao, X., Peng, L., Adhikari, C. M., Lin, J., & Zuo, Z. (2007). Spironolactone reduced arrhythmia and maintained magnesium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of cardiac failure, 13(3), 170-177.
- Giordano, F. J. (2005). Oxygen, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and heart failure. The Journal of clinical investigation, 115(3), 500-508.
- Grady, K. L., Dracup, K., Kennedy, G., Moser, D. K., Piano, M., Stevenson, L. W., & Young, J. B. (2000). Team management of patients with heart failure: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Cardiovascular Nursing Council of the American Heart Association. Circulation, 102(19), 2443-2456.
- Gulanick, M., & Myers, J. L. (2021). Nursing Care Plans-E-Book: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention. Mosby.
- Haque, W. A., Boehmer, J., Clemson, B. S., Leuenberger, U. A., Silber, D. H., & Sinoway, L. I. (1996). Hemodynamic effects of supplemental oxygen administration in congestive heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 27(2), 353-357.
- Herman, L. L., & Tivakaran, V. S. (2017). Hydralazine.
- Hinkle, J. L., & KH, C. (2017). Brunner & Suddarth’s textbook of medical‑surgical nursing. Vol. 1.
- Holme, M. R., & Sharman, T. (2020). Sodium nitroprusside.
- Jaarsma, T., Strömberg, A., De Geest, S., Fridlund, B., Heikkila, J., Mårtensson, J., … & Thompson, D. R. (2006). Heart failure management programmes in Europe. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 5(3), 197-205.
- Jacobs, M. (1984). Mechanism of action of hydralazine on vascular smooth muscle. Biochemical pharmacology, 33(18), 2915-2919.
- Joynt, K. E., Whellan, D. J., & O’connor, C. M. (2004). Why is depression bad for the failing heart? A review of the mechanistic relationship between depression and heart failure. Journal of cardiac failure, 10(3), 258-271.
- Jurgens, C. Y., Goodlin, S., Dolansky, M., Ahmed, A., Fonarow, G. C., Boxer, R., … & Rich, M. W. (2015). Heart failure management in skilled nursing facilities: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation: Heart Failure, 8(3), 655-687.
- Kemp, C. D., & Conte, J. V. (2012). The pathophysiology of heart failure. Cardiovascular Pathology, 21(5), 365-371.
- Kim, W., & Kim, E. J. (2018). Heart failure as a risk factor for stroke. Journal of stroke, 20(1), 33.
- Klompstra, L., Jaarsma, T., & Strömberg, A. (2018). Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between motivation and physical activity in patients with heart failure. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 33(3), 211.
- Krämer, B. K., Schweda, F., & Riegger, G. A. (1999). Diuretic treatment and diuretic resistance in heart failure. The American journal of medicine, 106(1), 90-96.
- Leier, C. V., & Chatterjee, K. (2007). The physical examination in heart failure—Part I. Congestive Heart Failure, 13(1), 41-47.
- Levy, P., Compton, S., Welch, R., Delgado, G., Jennett, A., Penugonda, N., … & Zalenski, R. (2007). Treatment of severe decompensated heart failure with high-dose intravenous nitroglycerin: a feasibility and outcome analysis. Annals of emergency medicine, 50(2), 144-152.
- Lewis, P. A., Ward, D. A., & Courtney, M. D. (2009). The intra-aortic balloon pump in heart failure management: implications for nursing practice. Australian critical care, 22(3), 125-131.
- Maisel, W. H., & Stevenson, L. W. (2003). Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and rationale for therapy. The American journal of cardiology, 91(6), 2-8.
- Masip, J., Gayà, M., Páez, J., Betbesé, A., Vecilla, F., Manresa, R., & Ruíz, P. (2012). Pulse oximetry in the diagnosis of acute heart failure. Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition), 65(10), 879-884.
- Milo-Cotter, O., Cotter, G., Kaluski, E., Rund, M. M., Felker, G. M., Adams, K. F., … & Weatherley, B. D. (2009). Rapid Clinical Assessment of Patients with Acute Heart Failure: First Blood Pressure and Oxygen Saturation–Is That All We Need?. Cardiology, 114(1), 75-82.
- Mullens, W., Abrahams, Z., Francis, G. S., Skouri, H. N., Starling, R. C., Young, J. B., … & Tang, W. W. (2008). Sodium nitroprusside for advanced low-output heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 52(3), 200-207.
- Nicholson, C. (2007). Heart failure: A clinical nursing handbook (Vol. 31). John Wiley & Sons.
- Nyolczas, N., Dekany, M., Muk, B., & Szabo, B. (2017). Combination of hydralazine and isosorbide-dinitrate in the treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Heart Failure: From Research to Clinical Practice, 31-45.
- Oh, S. W., & Han, S. Y. (2015). Loop diuretics in clinical practice. Electrolytes & Blood Pressure, 13(1), 17-21.
- Pereira, J. D. M. V., Cavalcanti, A. C. D., Lopes, M. V. D. O., Silva, V. G. D., Souza, R. O. D., & Gonçalves, L. C. (2015). Accuracy in inference of nursing diagnoses in heart failure patients. Revista brasileira de enfermagem, 68, 690-696.
- Picano, E., Gargani, L., & Gheorghiade, M. (2010). Why, when, and how to assess pulmonary congestion in heart failure: pathophysiological, clinical, and methodological implications. Heart failure reviews, 15(1), 63-72.
- Piña, I. L., Apstein, C. S., Balady, G. J., Belardinelli, R., Chaitman, B. R., Duscha, B. D., … & Sullivan, M. J. (2003). Exercise and heart failure: a statement from the American Heart Association Committee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention. Circulation, 107(8), 1210-1225.
- Platz, E., Merz, A. A., Jhund, P. S., Vazir, A., Campbell, R., & McMurray, J. J. (2017). Dynamic changes and prognostic value of pulmonary congestion by lung ultrasound in acute and chronic heart failure: a systematic review. European journal of heart failure, 19(9), 1154-1163.
- Qamer, S. Z., Malik, A., Bayoumi, E., Lam, P. H., Singh, S., Packer, M., … & Ahmed, A. (2019). Digoxin use and outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The American journal of medicine, 132(11), 1311-1319.
- Redeker, N. S., Adams, L., Berkowitz, R., Blank, L., Freudenberger, R., Gilbert, M., … & Rapoport, D. (2012). Nocturia, sleep and daytime function in stable heart failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 18(7), 569-575.
- Reid, M. B., & Cottrell, D. (2005). Nursing care of patients receiving: Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Critical care nurse, 25(5), 40-49.
- Rogers, C., & Bush, N. (2015). Heart failure: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical treatment guidelines, and nursing management. The Nursing Clinics of North America, 50(4), 787-799.
- Rutledge, T., Reis, V. A., Linke, S. E., Greenberg, B. H., & Mills, P. J. (2006). Depression in heart failure: a meta-analytic review of prevalence, intervention effects, and associations with clinical outcomes. Journal of the American college of Cardiology, 48(8), 1527-1537.
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- Serber, S. L., Rinsky, B., Kumar, R., Macey, P. M., Fonarow, G. C., & Harper, R. M. (2014). Cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity during autonomic challenges in heart failure. Nursing research, 63(3), 194.
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Originally published on July 14, 2013.
22 thoughts on “18 Heart Failure Nursing Care Plans”
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A very nice explanation keep it up!
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Thank you Caleb, check out our other nursing care plans and nursing diagnoses!
I wish you would add some patient education information, sometimes it seems like it may be common knowledge, but I’d like to see specifically focused education topics! Please and thank you!
You can check the deficient knowledge nursing diagnosis for this care plan.
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Thanks so much, I’m a student nurse currently working on my care study and it has really been helpful.
Please,can I also have a detailed pathophysiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy as well as its nursing care plans. Thanks a lot once again.
This is such a comprehensive nursing care plan for heart failure. I appreciate the author. Kudos to you!
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Even now as an NP. These are a wonderful resource to review processes.. don’t know who came up with this site but kudos to you!!!
So much hands on information. Where can we get it as PDF info