Chronic renal failure (CRF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the end result of a gradual, progressive loss of kidney function. The loss of function may be so slow that you do not have symptoms until your kidneys have almost stopped working.
The final stage of chronic kidney disease is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). At this stage, the kidneys are no longer able to remove enough wastes and excess fluids from the body. At this point, you would need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Nursing Care Plans
The nursing care planning goal for with chronic renal failure is to prevent further complications and supportive care. Client education is also critical as this is a chronic disease and thus requires long-term treatment.
- Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output
- Risk for Ineffective Protection
- Disturbed Thought Process
- Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
- Risk for Impaired Oral Mucous Membrane
- Deficient Knowledge
- Excess Fluid Volume
- Acute Pain
- Impaired Renal Tissue Perfusion
- Impaired Urinary Elimination
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements
- NEW Activity Intolerance
- NEW Disturbed Body Image
- NEW Anticipatory Grieving
- NEW Risk for Infection
- NEW Risk for Injury
- Other Possible Nursing Care Plans
Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output
- Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output
Risk factors may include
- Fluid imbalances affecting circulating volume, myocardial workload, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
- Alterations in rate, rhythm, cardiac conduction (electrolyte imbalances, hypoxia)
- Accumulation of toxins (urea), soft-tissue calcification (deposition of calcium phosphate)
Possibly evidenced by
- Not applicable. Existence of signs and symptoms establishes an actual nursing diagnosis.
- Maintain cardiac output as evidenced by BP and heart rate within patient’s normal range; peripheral pulses strong and equal with prompt capillary refill time.
|Auscultate heart and lung sounds. Evaluate presence of peripheral edema, vascular congestion and reports of dyspnea.||S3 and S4 heart sounds with muffled tones, tachycardia, irregular heart rate, tachypnea, dyspnea, crackles, wheezes,edema and jugular distension suggest HF.|
|Assess presence and degree of hypertension: monitor BP; note postural changes (sitting, lying, standing).||Significant hypertension can occur because of disturbances in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (caused by renal dysfunction). Although hypertension is common, orthostatic hypotension may occur because of intravascular fluid deficit, response to effects of antihypertensive medications, or uremic pericardial tamponade.|
|Investigate reports of chest pain, noting location, radiation, severity (0–10 scale), and whether or not it is intensified by deep inspiration and supine position.||Although hypertension and chronic HF may cause MI, approximately half of CRF patients on dialysis develop pericarditis, potentiating risk of pericardial effusion or tamponade.|
|Evaluate heart sounds (note friction rub), BP, peripheral pulses, capillary refill, vascular congestion, temperature, and sensorium or mentation.||Presence of sudden hypotension, paradoxic pulse, narrow pulse pressure, diminished or absent peripheral pulses, marked jugular distension, pallor, and a rapid mental deterioration indicate tamponade, which is a medical emergency.|
|Assess activity level, response to activity.||Weakness can be attributed to HF and anemia.|
|Monitor laboratory and diagnostic studies:|
||Imbalances can alter electrical conduction and cardiac function.|
|Useful in identifying developing cardiac failure or soft-tissue calcification.|
|Administer antihypertensive drugs such as prazosin (Minipress), captopril (Capoten), clonidine (Catapres), hydralazine (Apresoline).||Reduces systemic vascular resistance and renin release to decrease myocardial workload and aid in prevention of HF and MI.|
|Prepare for dialysis.||Reduction of uremic toxins and correction of electrolyte imbalances and fluid overload may limit and prevent cardiac manifestations, including hypertension and pericardial effusion.|
|Assist with pericardiocentesis as indicated.||Accumulation of fluid within pericardial sac can compromise cardiac filling and myocardial contractility, impairing cardiac output and potentiating risk of cardiac arrest.|
Recommended nursing diagnosis and nursing care plan books and resources.
- Nursing Care Plans: Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention (10th Edition)
An awesome book to help you create and customize effective nursing care plans. We highly recommend this book for its completeness and ease of use.
- Nurse’s Pocket Guide: Diagnoses, Prioritized Interventions and Rationales
A quick-reference tool to easily select the appropriate nursing diagnosis to plan your patient’s care effectively.
- NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification, 2021-2023 (12th Edition)
The official and definitive guide to nursing diagnoses as reviewed and approved by the NANDA-I. This book focuses on the nursing diagnostic labels, their defining characteristics, and risk factors – this does not include nursing interventions and rationales.
- Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, 12th Edition Revised Reprint with 2021-2023 NANDA-I® Updates
Another great nursing care plan resource that is updated to include the recent NANDA-I updates.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5(TM))
Useful for creating nursing care plans related to mental health and psychiatric nursing.
- Ulrich & Canale’s Nursing Care Planning Guides, 8th Edition
Claims to have the most in-depth care plans of any nursing care planning book. Includes 31 detailed nursing diagnosis care plans and 63 disease/disorder care plans.
- Maternal Newborn Nursing Care Plans (3rd Edition)
If you’re looking for specific care plans related to maternal and newborn nursing care, this book is for you.
- Nursing Diagnosis Manual: Planning, Individualizing, and Documenting Client Care (7th Edition)
An easy-to-use nursing care plan book that is updated with the latest diagnosis from NANDA-I 2021-2023.
- All-in-One Nursing Care Planning Resource: Medical-Surgical, Pediatric, Maternity, and Psychiatric-Mental Health (5th Edition)
Definitely an all-in-one resources for nursing care planning. It has over 100 care plans for different nursing topics.
Other recommended site resources for this nursing care plan:
- Nursing Care Plans (NCP): Ultimate Guide and Database
Over 150+ nursing care plans for different diseases and conditions. Includes our easy-to-follow guide on how to create nursing care plans from scratch.
- Nursing Diagnosis Guide and List: All You Need to Know to Master Diagnosing
Our comprehensive guide on how to create and write diagnostic labels. Includes detailed nursing care plan guides for common nursing diagnostic labels.
Other care plans and nursing diagnoses related to reproductive and urinary system disorders:
- Acute Glomerulonephritis | 4 Care Plans
- Acute Renal Failure | 6 Care Plans
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) | 5 Care Plans
- Chronic Renal Failure | 11 Care Plans
- Hemodialysis | 3 Care Plans
- Hysterectomy (TAHBSO) | 6 Care Plans
- Mastectomy | 14+ Care Plans
- Menopause | 6 Care Plans
- Nephrotic Syndrome | 5 Care Plans
- Peritoneal Dialysis | 6 Care Plans
- Prostatectomy | 6 Care Plans
- Urolithiasis (Renal Calculi) | 4 Care Plans
- Urinary Tract Infection | 4 Care Plans
- Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) | 5 Care Plans